Back to Journals » Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management » Volume 10

HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a review from a Brazilian perspective

Authors Alves M, Brites C, Sprinz E

Received 6 April 2014

Accepted for publication 20 May 2014

Published 17 July 2014 Volume 2014:10 Pages 559—566


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Marcelle D Alves,1 Carlos Brites,2 Eduardo Sprinz1,3

1Infectious Disease Department, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Abstract: The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has dramatically improved worldwide since the introduction of highly antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, along with the decrease in mortality, several body modifications not initially related to HIV infection have been reported. Disorders in lipid and glucose metabolism, accompanied by body shape abnormalities and alterations in fat distribution, began to be described. A syndrome, named “HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome”, was coined to classify these clinical spectrum aspects. This syndrome involves not only metabolic alterations but also fat redistribution, with lipoatrophy due to subcutaneous fat loss (predominantly in the face and lower limbs) and lipohypertrophy related to central fat gain. These changes in body shape are very important to be recognized, as they are associated with worse morbidity and mortality. Self-esteem difficulties related to body alterations might lead to treatment failures due to medication adherence problems. Moreover, these alterations have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify this syndrome early in order to provide an even better quality of life for this population, as the clinical approach is not easy. Treatment change, medications to treat dyslipidemia, and surgical intervention are instruments to be used to try to correct these abnormalities. The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of body shape and metabolic complications of HIV infection from a Brazilian perspective, a medium income country with a large number of patients on antiretroviral therapy.

Keywords: lipoatrophy, lipodystrophy, lipohypertrophy, HAART, dyslipidemia, Brazil

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Corrigendum: Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

Espandar L, Sikder S, Moshirfar M

Clinical Ophthalmology 2011, 5:159-160

Published Date: 6 February 2011

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010