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Histopathological evaluation of autopsy cases with isolated pulmonary fat embolism (IPFE): is cardiopulmonary resuscitation a main cause of death in IPFE?

Authors Turkmen Samdanci E, Reha Celik M, Pehlivan S, Celbis O, Turkkan D, Ozdemir Kara D, Pamukcu E

Received 12 November 2018

Accepted for publication 24 April 2019

Published 7 June 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 121—127


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Hans-Christoph Pape

Emine Turkmen Samdanci,1 Muhammet Reha Celik,2 Sultan Pehlivan,3 Osman Celbis,4 Dilhan Turkkan,3 Dogus Ozdemir Kara,3 Esra Pamukcu5

1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Inönü University, Malatya, Turkey; 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, School of Medicine, Inönü University, Malatya, Turkey; 3Pathology Laboratory, Council of Forensic Medicine, Ankara Group Chairmanship, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Inönü University, Malatya, Turkey; 5Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Fırat University, Elâziğ, Turkey

Background: Fat embolism (FE) may develop following many traumatic and atraumatic clinical conditions; however, fewer data exist regarding the occurrence of isolated pulmonary FE (IPFE). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure for maintaining blood circulation and oxygenation during cardiac arrest. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of CPR with IPFE in autopsy cases.
Methods: A total 402 cases among 4,118 autopsies were diagnosed with IPFE, and the medical background of these cases was retrospectively evaluated. Diagnosis of FE and FE grading were performed with histopathological examinations of postmortem tissue samples, and injury-severity scores of traumatic cases were assessed. Data of traumatic and atraumatic cases were statistically compared.
Results: Of the IPFE cases, 298 (741%) were male and 104 (25.9%) female, with overall mean age 53.7 (2–99) years. Causes of death of studied subjects were traumatic for 302 (75.1%) and atraumatic reasons for 100 (24.9%) cases. CPR was performed for 277 cases of which 177 (63.9%) were traumatic and 100 (36.1%) were non-traumatic. . In comparison to traumatic cases, significantly higher CPR frequency was determined in atraumatic IPFE (P=0.001). High grade FE in the traumatic cases, and mild-moderate grade of FE in the nontraumatic cases were found statistically significant(P=0.001).
Conclusion: This study indicates that CPR may be one of the leading factors in the development of IPFE in atraumatic conditions, and this procedure was related to mild–moderate IPFE manifestations. Regardless of whether conditions were traumatic or atraumatic, in patients who survive following CPR for manifest ventilation/perfusion problems, it should be remembered that IPFE may have developed due to CPR.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR, fat embolism, pulmonary embolism, autopsy

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