High-Intensity Interval Training Reversed High-Fat Diet–Induced M1-Macrophage Polarization in Rat Adipose Tissue via Inhibition of NOTCH Signaling
Authors Shanaki M, Khosravi M, Khoshdooni-Farahani A, Dadashi A, Heydari MF, Delfan M, Jafary H, Gorgani-Firuzjaee S
Received 2 November 2019
Accepted for publication 22 January 2020
Published 17 March 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 165—174
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Ning Quan
Mehrnoosh Shanaki, 1 Maryam Khosravi, 2 Arezoo Khoshdooni-Farahani, 3 Alireza Dadashi, 4 Mohammad Foad Heydari, 5 Maryam Delfan, 6 Hanieh Jafary, 3 Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee 5
1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; 3Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Infectious Disease, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence: Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee
Introduction: There is accumulating evidence on the beneficial effect of exercise intervention in the management of metabolic disorders; however, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Here, the current study aimed to compare the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on serum and adipose-tissue markers of M1/M2 macrophage polarization.
Methods: A total of 45 healthy male Wistar rats were divided into groups of normal chow (n=10) and high-fat diet (HFD) (n=35). Then, rats receiving the HFD were randomly divided into four groups. Training programs were performed for 5 days/week over 10 weeks. The CET protocol included 30 minutes running at 50%– 60% of VO 2max. The HIIT protocol consisted of five repeated intervals of 2-minute sprints on the treadmill at 80%– 90% VO 2max workload with 1 minute’s 30%– 35% VO 2max interval for each rat. Then, biochemical parameters were assessed. Macrophage-polarization markers were assessed at mRNA and protein levels by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively.
Results: Both exercise-training programs, especially HIIT, reversed increased serum biochemical parameters (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, and hsCRP), M1-polarization markers (circulating IL6, TNFα, and adipose-tissue mRNA expression of IL6, TNFα and iNOS), M2 markers (CD206, CD163, and IL10 expression), as well as pIκKB, pNFκB, and NICD expression in HFD-induced diabetes.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that despite devoting less time, the HIIT workout is a more effective intervention for diabetes management. Moreover, HIIT reverses HFD-induced macrophage polarization by targeting the NFκB and NOTCH signaling pathways.
Keywords: obesity, diabetes, macrophage polarization, high-intensity interval training, continuous endurance training
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