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High adherence level to artemisinin-based combination therapies in rural settlement 11 years after their introduction in the health system, Nanoro, Burkina Faso

Authors Rouamba T, Sondo P, Yerbanga IW, Compaore A, Traore-Coulibaly M, Hien FS, Diande NA, Valia D, Valea I, Akweongo P, Baiden R, Binka F, Kirakoya-Samadoulougou F, Tinto H

Received 15 October 2018

Accepted for publication 15 January 2019

Published 28 February 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 371—380


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen

Toussaint Rouamba,1,2 Paul Sondo,2 Isidore W Yerbanga,2 Adelaide Compaore,2 Maminata Traore-Coulibaly,2 Franck S Hien,2 Nassirou A Diande,2 Daniel Valia,2 Innocent Valea,2 Patricia Akweongo,3 Rita Baiden,4 Fred Binka,4 Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou,1 Halidou Tinto2

1Center for Research in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium; 2Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro, Institute for Research in Health Sciences, National Center for Scientific and Technological Research, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 3Epidemiology and Disease Control Department, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 4INDEPTH-Network, Accra, Ghana

Purpose: In 2005, Burkina Faso changed its first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria from chloroquine to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Patient adherence to ACTs regimen is a keystone to achieve the expected therapeutic outcome and prevent the emergence and spread of parasite resistance. Eleven years after the introduction of ACTs in the health system, this study aimed to measure adherence level of patients in rural settlement and investigate the determinants of nonadherence.
Patients and methods: The study was carried out at public peripheral health facilities from May 2017 to August 2017 in Nanoro health district, Burkina Faso. An electronic semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection from patients with an ACT prescription at their medical consultation exit visit and during home visit at day 5±2. Adherence level was measured through self-report and pill counts. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors for nonadherence.
Results: The analysis was conducted on 199 outpatients who received ACT as prescription. About 92.5% of ACT prescriptions included artemether-lumefantrine tablets. Adherence level was measured in 97.0% of included patients at day 5±2. Of these, 86.0% were classified as “complete adherent” and 14.0% as “nonadherent”. In univariate analysis, patients/caregivers who considered that affordability of ACTs was easy seemed to be less adherent to the treatment regimen (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.07–0.70). In univariate and multivariable analyses, patients/caregivers who did not receive advices from health care workers (HCWs) were more likely to be nonadherent to the prescribed ACTs (adjusted OR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.13–9.12).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that majority of those who get an ACT prescription comply with the recommended regimen. This emphasizes that in rural settings where ACTs are provided free of charge or at a subsidized price, patient adherence to ACTs is high, thus minimizing the risk of subtherapeutic concentrations of the drug in blood which is known to increase resistance and susceptibility to new infections. Therefore, to address the problem of patient nonadherence, strategy to strengthen communication between HCWs and patients should be given greater consideration.

Keywords: malaria, hyperendemic area, drug prescription, artemether-lumefantrine, amodiaquine-artesunate

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