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Hematological parameters in Ghanaian sickle cell disease patients

Authors Antwi-Boasiako C, Ekem I, Abdul-Rahman M, Sey F, Doku A, Dzudzor B, Dankwah GB, Hagar Otu K, Ahenkorah J, Aryee R

Received 1 April 2018

Accepted for publication 12 June 2018

Published 31 October 2018 Volume 2018:9 Pages 203—209


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth

Charles Antwi-Boasiako,1 Ivy Ekem,2 Mubarak Abdul-Rahman,3 Frederika Sey,4 Alfred Doku,5 Bartholomew Dzudzor,6 Gifty B Dankwah,1 Kate Hagar Otu,7 John Ahenkorah,8 Robert Aryee1

1Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of Haematology, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana; 3Department of Pathology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 4Sickle Cell Clinic, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana; 5Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 6Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 7Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Greenhills School of Health Sciences, Accra, Ghana; 8Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana

Background: Effective treatment and management of sickle cell disease (SCD) has been a challenge in Africa over the years. Hematological parameters are very useful profiles in the effective management of the disease. However, there is scarcity of studies on the hematological parameters of SCD in Ghana. This study aimed at determining hematological parameters among SCD patients with vaso-occlusion, those in the steady state as well as healthy controls at a teaching hospital in Ghana.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study involving a total of 628 subjects, including 148 HbAA controls, 208 HbSS patients in steady state, 82 HbSC patients in steady state, 156 HbSS patients in vaso-occlusive crises (VOC), and 34 HbSC patients in VOC. Venous blood sample was collected from all study participants. A full blood count was done within 2 hours of collection, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cell (RBC) concentration, mean corpuscular Hb, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular Hb concentration, and white blood cells (WBC) and platelet (PLT) counts were recorded.
Results: WBC and PLT counts were significantly higher in both female and male patients with SCD, compared with their healthy counterparts (P<0.05). The level of WBC was, however, significantly higher in patients with HbSS VOC among the SCD patients (P<0.001). Levels of Hb, RBC, and hematocrit were significantly higher in the controls (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in mean cell Hb among male patients with SCD (P=0.274) and female patients with SCD (P=0.5410).
Conclusion: The SCD patients had lower Hb and RBC than the controls; however, higher PLT and WBC are noted in various status of SCD, possibly reflecting spleen effect in these patients. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Keywords: sickle cell disease, hematological parameters, full blood count, anemia, Ghana

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