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Health Inequalities During COVID-19 and Their Effects on Morbidity and Mortality

Authors Mishra V, Seyedzenouzi G, Almohtadi A, Chowdhury T, Khashkhusha A, Axiaq A, Wong WYE, Harky A

Received 11 November 2020

Accepted for publication 10 January 2021

Published 19 January 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 19—26


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Russell Taichman

Vaibhav Mishra,1 Golnoush Seyedzenouzi,1 Ahmad Almohtadi,1 Tasnim Chowdhury,1 Arwa Khashkhusha,2 Ariana Axiaq,3 Wing Yan Elizabeth Wong,4 Amer Harky5– 8

1School of Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, St. George’s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK; 2School of Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Foundation Building, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 7ZX, UK; 3School of Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UK; 4Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9PX, UK; 5Department of Cardiac Surgery, Alder Hey Children Hospital, Liverpool, UK; 6Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK; 7Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK; 8Department of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

Correspondence: Amer Harky
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK

Abstract: Inequalities in health have existed for many decades and have led to unjust consequences in morbidity and mortality. These have become even more apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic with individuals from black and minority ethnic groups, poorer socioeconomic backgrounds, urban and rurally deprived locations, and vulnerable groups of society suffering the full force of its effects. This review is highlighting the current disparities that exist within different societies, that subsequently demonstrate COVID-19, does in fact, discriminate against disadvantaged individuals. Also explored in detail are the measures that can and should be taken to improve equality and provide equitable distribution of healthcare resources amongst underprivileged communities.

Keywords: health inequalities, socioeconomic status, geographical location, vulnerable populations, coronavirus

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