Back to Browse Journals » Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine » Volume 2

Growth hormone doping: a review

Authors Erotokritou-Mulligan I, Holt RI, Sönksen PH

Published Date July 2011 Volume 2011:2 Pages 99—111


Published 27 July 2011

Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H Sönksen
Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK

Abstract: The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.

Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at:

Readers of this article also read:

Shared decision-making in the People’s Republic of China: current status and future directions

Huang RC, Gionfriddo MR, Zhang LZ, Leppin AL, Ting HH, Montori VM

Patient Preference and Adherence 2015, 9:1129-1141

Published Date: 6 August 2015

The therapeutic effect of methotrexate-conjugated Pluronic-based polymeric micelles on the folate receptor-rich tumors treatment

Chen YZ, Zhang W, Huang YK, Gao F, Sha XY, Lou KY, Fang XL

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:4043-4057

Published Date: 19 June 2015

Oxidative stress and antibacterial properties of a graphene oxide-cystamine nanohybrid

Nanda SS, An SS, Yi DK

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:549-556

Published Date: 12 January 2015

Participation and performance trends in ultracycling

Abou Shoak M, Knechtle B, Knechtle P, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Lepers R

Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2013, 4:41-51

Published Date: 25 February 2013

Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men

Rüst CA, Knechtle B, Rosemann T

Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2012, 3:189-199

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia: comparative study between conventional-dose and low-dose hyperbaric bupivacaine

Imbelloni LE, Sant'Anna R, Fornasari M, Fialho JC

Local and Regional Anesthesia 2011, 4:41-46

Published Date: 3 October 2011

Analysis of ultra-triathlon performances

Lepers R, Knechtle B, Knechtle P, Rosemann T

Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2011, 2:131-136

Published Date: 25 August 2011

Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

Östman-Smith I

Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2011, 2:85-97

Published Date: 21 July 2011

Neurological adverse events following regional anesthesia administration

Christopher D Kent, Laurent Bollag

Local and Regional Anesthesia 2010, 3:115-123

Published Date: 27 October 2010