Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 11

Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

Authors Abbai R, Mathiyalagan R, Markus J, Kim Y, Wang C, Singh P, Ahn S, Farh ME, Yang DC

Received 15 March 2016

Accepted for publication 27 April 2016

Published 11 July 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 3131—3143


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Ragavendran Abbai,1,* Ramya Mathiyalagan,1,* Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Chao Wang,2 Priyanka Singh,2 Sungeun Ahn,2 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,2 Deok Chun Yang1,2

1Ginseng Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology, 2Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs) and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs). First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E), total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line) and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) at 10 µg·mL-1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844), and Escherichia coli (BL21) treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay demonstrated that both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs possess strong antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report unraveling the potential of Eleutherococcus senticosus for silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis along with its biological applications, which in turn would promote widespread usage of the endemic Siberian ginseng.

Keywords: Siberian ginseng, eleutheroside E, eleutheroside A, green synthesis, cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity, antioxidant efficacy

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]