Back to Browse Journals » International Journal of Women's Health » Volume 2

Gestational diabetes: risks, management, and treatment options

Authors Catherine Kim

Published 7 October 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 339—351

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S13333

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Catherine Kim
Departments of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is commonly defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Diagnostic criteria for GDM have changed over the decades, and several definitions are currently used; recent recommendations may increase the prevalence of GDM to as high as one of five pregnancies. Perinatal complications associated with GDM include hypertensive disorders, preterm delivery, shoulder dystocia, stillbirths, clinical neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and cesarean deliveries. Postpartum complications include obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in the offspring and diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the mothers. Management strategies increasingly emphasize optimal management of fetal growth and weight. Monitoring of glucose, fetal stress, and fetal weight through ultrasound combined with maternal weight management, medical nutritional therapy, physical activity, and pharmacotherapy can decrease comorbidities associated with GDM. Consensus is lacking on ideal glucose targets, degree of caloric restriction and content, algorithms for pharmacotherapy, and in particular, the use of oral medications and insulin analogs in lieu of human insulin. Postpartum glucose screening and initiation of healthy lifestyle behaviors, including exercise, adequate fruit and vegetable intake, breastfeeding, and contraception, are encouraged to decrease rates of future glucose intolerance in mothers and offspring.

Keywords: glucose intolerance, pregnancy, perinatal complications

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010