Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 9 » Issue 1

Functionalization of ethylene vinyl acetate with antimicrobial chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles

Authors Wood NJ, Maddocks SE, Grady HJ, Collins AM, Barbour ME

Received 1 April 2014

Accepted for publication 5 May 2014

Published 27 August 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 4145—4152

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S65343

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Natalie J Wood,1–3 Sarah E Maddocks,4 Helena J Grady,1,2 Andrew M Collins,2 Michele E Barbour1

1Oral Nanoscience, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, 2Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, 3Centre for Organised Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, UK; 4School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK

Abstract: Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is in widespread use as a polymeric biomaterial with diverse applications such as intravitreal devices, catheters, artificial organs, and mouthguards. Many biomaterials are inherently prone to bacterial colonization, as the human body is host to a vast array of microbes. This can lead to infection at the biomaterial’s site of implantation or application. In this study, EVA was coated with chlorhexidine (CHX) hexametaphosphate (HMP) nanoparticles (NPs) precipitated using two different reagent concentrations: CHX-HMP-5 (5 mM CHX and HMP) and CHX-HMP-0.5 (0.5 mM CHX and HMP). Data gathered using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the NPs were polydisperse, ~40–80 nm in diameter, and aggregated in solution to form clusters of ~140–200 nm and some much larger aggregates of 4–5 µM. CHX-HMP-5 formed large deposits on the polymer surface discernible using scanning electron microscopy, whereas CHX-HMP-0.5 did not. Soluble CHX was released by CHX-HMP-5 NP-coated surfaces over the experimental period of 56 days. CHX-HMP-5 NPs prevented growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when applied to the polymer surfaces, and also inhibited or prevented growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with greater efficacy when the NP suspension was not rinsed from the polymer surface, providing a greater NP coverage. This approach may provide a useful means to treat medical devices fabricated from EVA to render them resistant to colonization by pathogenic microorganisms.

Keywords: EVA, biomaterial, polymer

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other article by this author:

Readers of this article also read:

Molecular targets in arthritis and recent trends in nanotherapy

Roy K, Kanwar RK, Kanwar JR

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:5407-5420

Published Date: 26 August 2015

Acquired hemophilia A: emerging treatment options

Janbain M, Leissinger CA, Kruse-Jarres R

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:143-150

Published Date: 8 May 2015

The influence of bile salt on the chemotherapeutic response of docetaxel-loaded thermosensitive nanomicelles

Kim DW, Ramasamy T, Choi JY, Kim JH, Yong CS, Kim JO, Choi HG

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3815-3824

Published Date: 8 August 2014

Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

Ge L, Li Q, Wang M, Ouyang J, Li XJ, Xing MM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:2399-2407

Published Date: 16 May 2014

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010