Functional and Structural Changes of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Complex in Heavy Smokers
Received 24 October 2019
Accepted for publication 13 January 2020
Published 12 February 2020 Volume 2020:14 Pages 397—404
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Marwa Abdelshafy, Ahmed Abdelshafy
Ophthalmology Department, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
Correspondence: Marwa Abdelshafy
Faculty of Medicine, Ophthalmology Department, Benha University, 1 El Amirafawzya Street, Benha, Qalubiya Governorate, Benha 13512, Egypt
Purpose: To assess the functional and structural changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) in heavy smokers using pattern electroretinogram (PERG), photopic negative response(PhNR) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
Patients and Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 heavy smokers (at least 15 cigarettes/day for 10 years) (study group) and 60 eyes of 30 age and gender-matched healthy non-smoker subjects (control group) were included. After full ophthalmologic examination (PERG), (PhNR) using RETI-port/scan 21 (Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) and (SD-OCT using Topcon 3D OCT model 2000 FA version.8.30) were tested for all participants. Statistical analysis was performed to compare GCC, RNFL thicknesses, PERG and phNR values between groups.
Results: The mean age was 36.67± 4.13 years in the study group and 36.0± 4.76 years in the control group. There were no statistical significant differences between the two groups regarding intraocular pressure (p=0.43), axial length (p=0.37), and central corneal thickness (p=0.86). There were significant differences of GCC thickness values between the study group (88.4± 6.6 μm) and control group (94.83± 5.25 μm) (p< 0.001). The mean RNFL values of study and control groups were 97.87± 5.88 and 106.43± 6.59 μm, respectively (p< 0.001). In the study group the superior and inferior quadrants of RNFL were significantly thinner, but there were no significant differences between the two groups in nasal and temporal quadrants. There were no significant differences of PERG-P50 amplitude (p=0.49) and latency (p=0.71); however, PERG-N95 amplitude and latency showed significant differences between the two groups (p< 0.001).There were significant differences of phNR amplitude and latency between the two groups (p< 0.001). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the PhNR, PERG amplitude and latency are the most important determinants for both RNFL and GCC thicknesses.
Conclusion: In heavy smokers RNFL thickness was decreased, the PhNR, PERG-N95 amplitudes were diminished and the implicit times were prolonged compared to non-smokers. PhNR and PERG reflect both dysfunction and loss of ganglion cells and their axons.
Keywords: GCL, nerve fiber layer, optical coherence tomography, pattern electroretinogram, photopic negative response
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