Frequency of Social Isolation and Homeboundness and Their Relationships with High-Level Functional Capacity in Elderly Diabetic Patients
Received 2 January 2020
Accepted for publication 22 July 2020
Published 21 August 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 1439—1447
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Satoshi Ida, Ryutaro Kaneko, Kanako Imataka, Kaoru Okubo, Yoshitaka Shirakura, Kentaro Azuma, Ryoko Fujiwara, Hiroka Takahashi, Kazuya Murata
Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Ise Red Cross Hospital, Ise-shi, Mie 516-8512, Japan
Correspondence: Satoshi Ida
Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Ise Red Cross Hospital, 1-471-2, Funae, 1-Chome, Ise-shi, Mie 516-8512, Japan
Tel +81 596-28-2171
Fax +81 596-28-2965
Purpose: To determine the frequency of social isolation (hereinafter, isolation) and homeboundness in elderly diabetic patients and to investigate their relationships with high-level functional capacity.
Patients and Methods: Subjects were diabetic outpatients aged 65 years and older who were visiting the Japanese Red Cross Ise Hospital. Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) was used to evaluate high-level functional capacity. Isolation was defined as having less than one interaction per week with someone other than co-habiting family members. Homeboundness was defined as leaving the house less than once a day. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the TMIG-IC score as the dependent variable and isolation and homeboundness as independent variables.
Results: Four hundred fifty-one patients were included in the analysis. The frequency of isolation and homeboundness affected 37% and 13.3% of men and 28.9% and 20.6% of women, respectively. The adjusted partial regression coefficient of the TMIG-IC scores of isolated, homebound, and isolated+homebound men was − 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), − 1.68 to − 0.21; P = 0.012], − 0.27 (95% CI, − 1.93 to 1.39; P = 0.746), and − 4.03 (95% CI, − 5.37 to − 2.68; P < 0.001) in relation to that of the non-isolated and non-homebound group as reference. In women, the respective coefficients to the reference were − 1.33 (95% CI, − 2.93 to 0.25; P = 0.099), − 0.65 (95% CI, − 2.56 to 1.26; P = 0.501), and − 3.01 (95% CI, − 4.92 to − 1.1; P = 0.002), respectively.
Conclusion: The frequency of isolation was high in both female and male elderly diabetic patients. In men, there was a significant relationship between isolation and decline in high-level functional capacity. In both men and women, there was a significant relationship between isolation+homeboundness and decline in high-level functional capacity.
Keywords: community-dwelling elderly, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, TMIG-IC, diabetes in the elderly, activities of daily living
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