Frailty in community-dwelling older adults: association with adverse outcomes
Received 19 April 2017
Accepted for publication 18 May 2017
Published 26 June 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1003—1011
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Sergio Sánchez-García,1 Carmen García-Peña,2 Antoni Salvà,3 Rosalinda Sánchez-Arenas,1 Víctor Granados-García,1 Juan Cuadros-Moreno,4 Laura Bárbara Velázquez-Olmedo,5 Ángel Cárdenas-Bahena1
1Epidemiology and Health Services Research Unit, Aging Area, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 2Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Geriatría, Institutos Nacionales de Salud de México, Secretaría de Salud, 3Health and Ageing Foundation, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, España, 4Coordination of Health Education, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 5Department of Public Health and Oral Epidemiology, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México
Background: The study of frailty is important to identify the additional needs of medical long-term care and prevent adverse outcomes in community dwelling older adults. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with adverse outcomes in community dwelling older adults.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from April to September 2014. The population sample was 1,252 older adults (≥60 years) who were beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Mexico City. Data were derived from the database of the “Cohort of Obesity, Sarcopenia and Frailty of Older Mexican Adults” (COSFOMA). Operationalization of the phenotype of frailty was performed using the criteria of Fried et al (weight loss, self-report of exhaustion, low physical activity, slow gait, and weakness). Adverse outcomes studied were limitation in basic activities of daily living (ADLs), falls and admission to emergency services in the previous year, and low quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD).
Results: Frailty was identified in 20.6% (n=258), pre-frailty in 57.6% (n=721), and not frail in 21.8% (n=273). The association between frailty and limitations in ADL was odds ratio (OR) =2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–3.2) and adjusted OR =1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4); falls OR =1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.1) and adjusted OR =1.4 (95% CI 1.0–1.9); admission to emergency services OR =1.9 (95% CI 1.1–3.1) and adjusted OR =1.9 (95% CI 1.1–3.4); low quality of life OR =3.4 (95% CI 2.6–4.6) and adjusted OR =2.1 (95% CI 1.5–2.9).
Conclusion: Approximately 2 out of 10 older adults demonstrate frailty. This is associated with limitations in ADL, falls, and admission to emergency rooms during the previous year as well as low quality of life.
Keywords: frailty, aging, limitations in daily living, falls, emergency services, quality of life, social security
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