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Factors affecting patients’ comfort during fiberoptic bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound

Authors Yıldırım F, Özkaya Ş, Yurdakul AS

Received 25 July 2016

Accepted for publication 28 December 2016

Published 29 March 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 775—781


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael Schatman

Fatma Yıldırım,1 Şevket Özkaya,2 Ahmet Selim Yurdakul1

1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey

Objective: This study investigated the factors that can affect the comfort of patients who underwent diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) and diagnostic endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) for the first time and the effect of the patients’ anxiety level on their comfort during the procedure.
Materials and methods: We recorded the demographics of the patients, the medications they used previously, the anesthesia applied during the procedure, the experience of the operator, the insertion technique of the bronchoscope, the types of the bronchoscopic interventions during the procedure, the duration of the procedure, and the anxiety levels of the patients before the session. Patients’ discomfort level before and after the procedure and anxiety levels before the procedure were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS), and willingness for repeating FOB and EBUS was assessed using a questionnaire.
Results: We found that longer examination time, higher anxiety level before the procedure, the nasal insertion of bronchoscope, and higher number of interventions are related to the increased discomfort during FOB and EBUS. Patients’ willingness for repeating FOB and EBUS increased as the level of discomfort decreased during the procedure.
The patient’s anxiety level should be determined using a questionnaire before the FOB and EBUS procedures, and the operator should adjust their procedure according to the patients’ anxiety level.

Keywords: patient comfort, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound, patient anxiety, preprocedure questionnaire, patient willingness

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