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Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control

Authors Lambadi PR, Sharma TK, Kumar P, Vasnani P, Thalluri SM, Bisht N, Pathania R, Navani NK

Received 19 August 2014

Accepted for publication 16 October 2014

Published 18 March 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 2155—2171

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S72923

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Paramesh Ramulu Lambadi,1,* Tarun Kumar Sharma,1,* Piyush Kumar,1 Priyanka Vasnani,2 Sitaramanjaneya Mouli Thalluri,2 Neha Bisht,1 Ranjana Pathania,1,2 Naveen Kumar Navani1,2

1Department of Biotechnology, 2Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host’s immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs) were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs). Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial agents to control infections.

Keywords: polymyxin B, silver nanoparticles, biofunctionalization, nosocomial pathogen, biofilm inhibition, endotoxin removal

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