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Excessive daytime sleepiness and adherence to antihypertensive medications among Blacks: analysis of the counseling African Americans to control hypertension (CAATCH) trial

Authors Williams N, Jean-Louis G, Pandey A, Ravenell J, Boutin-Foster C, Ogedegbe G

Received 27 August 2013

Accepted for publication 16 October 2013

Published 11 March 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 283—287

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S53617

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Natasha J Williams,1 Girardin Jean-Louis,1 Abhishek Pandey,2 Joseph Ravenell,1 Carla Boutin-Foster,3 Gbenga Ogedegbe1

1Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Division of Internal Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, 2Department of Family Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, 3Center of Excellence in Disparities Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA

Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) often occurs as a result of insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, illicit substance use, and other medical and psychiatric conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that blacks exhibiting EDS would have poorer self-reported adherence to hypertensive medication using cross-sectional data from the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) trial.
Methods: A total of 1,058 hypertensive blacks (average age 57±12 years) participated in CAATCH, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention for participants who receive care from community health centers in New York City. Data analyzed in this study included baseline sociodemographics, medical history, EDS, and medication adherence. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with a cutoff score of ≥10, to define EDS. Medication adherence was measured using an abbreviated Morisky Medication Adherence scale, with a score >0 indicating nonadherence.
Results: Of the sample, 71% were female, 72% received at least a high school education, 51% reported a history of smoking, and 33% had a history of alcohol consumption. Overall, 27% of the participants exhibited EDS, and 44% of those who exhibited EDS were classified as adherent to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for effects of age, body mass index, sex, education, and smoking and drinking history indicated that participants who exhibited EDS were more than twice as likely to be nonadherent (odds ratio 2.28, 95% confidence interval 1.42–3.67, P<0.001).
Conclusion: Analysis of the CAATCH data showed a high prevalence of EDS among hypertensive blacks. EDS is a significant predictor of nonadherence to prescribed medications for hypertension. These findings point to a modifiable variable that can be targeted in future interventions focusing on medication adherence.

Keywords: excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, medication adherence, blacks

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