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Evaluation of the biological activity of novel monocationic fluoroaryl-2,2’-bichalcophenes and their analogues

Authors Hussin WA, Ismail MA, Alzahrani AM, El-Sayed WM

Received 18 April 2014

Accepted for publication 16 May 2014

Published 17 July 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 963—972

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S66469

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Warda A Hussin,1,2,*,† Mohamed A Ismail,1,3,* Abdullah M Alzahrani,1 Wael M El-Sayed,1,4

1King Faisal University, College of Science, Departments of Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia; 2Al-Azhr University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 4University of Ain Shams, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Warda A Hussin passed away on May 21, 2014

Abstract: A series of bichalcophene fluorobenzamidines 5a–e was synthesized from the corresponding mononitriles 4a–e via a direct reaction with lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide LiN(TMS)2 followed by de-protection with ethanolic HCl (gas). Bichalcophene fluorobenzonitriles 4a–e were prepared adopting a Stille coupling reaction between the bromo compounds 3a–c and 2-(tri-n-butylstannyl)furan or analogues. As an approach to drug discovery, the structure–antimutagenicity relationship of novel fluoroarylbichalcophenes was examined using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. At nontoxic concentrations (10 and 20 µM), all derivatives alone or in combination with sodium azide (NaN3; 2 µg/plate) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 20 µM) in the presence of S9 mix were not mutagenic. The fluoroaryl derivatives significantly reduced the NaN3-induced and B[a]P-induced mutagenicity under pre-exposure and co-exposure conditions. The recorded antimutagenic activity of fluoroaryl derivatives varied depending on the kind of mutagen and the exposure regimen. Monocationic fluoroarylbichalcophenes were superior to the corresponding mononitriles in reducing B[a]P-induced mutagenicity. Nevertheless, mononitriles were more active against NaN3, especially at low concentrations and under pre-exposure treatments. The antimutagenic activity was congruent with a high antioxidant activity that could promote the DNA repair system. The fluorine substitution changed the antimutagenic signature of bichalcophenes. Some of these compounds could be selected for further anticancer studies.

Keywords: fluoroaryl-2,2’-bichalcophenes, stille coupling, Salmonella typhimurium, sodium azide, benzo[a]pyrene, antimutagenicity

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