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Evaluation of binocular function among pre- and early-presbyopes with asthenopia

Authors Reindel W, Zhang L, Chinn J, Rah M

Received 9 September 2017

Accepted for publication 16 November 2017

Published 4 January 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 1—8


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Mr Simon Berry

William Reindel,1 Lening Zhang,1 Joseph Chinn,2 Marjorie Rah1

1Vision Care, Bausch & Lomb Inc, Rochester, NY, 2J Chinn LLC, Lafayette, CO, USA

Purpose: Individuals approaching presbyopia may exhibit ocular symptoms as they contend with visual demands of near work, coupled with natural age-related changes in accommodation. Therefore, accommodation and vergence of 30- to 40-year-old, myopic, soft contact lens wearing subjects with symptoms of asthenopia and no history of using multifocal lenses were evaluated.
Patients and methods: In this prospective, observational study, 253 subjects with asthenopia were evaluated by 25 qualified practitioners, each at a different clinical site. Subjects were 30–40 years in age, had symptoms of soreness, eyestrain, tired eyes, or headaches with near work, regularly performed 2–3 consecutive hours of near work, and were undiagnosed with presbyopia. Amplitude of accommodation (AC) and near point convergence (NPC) were measured with a Royal Air Force binocular gauge. Triplicate push up and push down AC and NPC measures were recorded, and average AC values were compared to those calculated using the Hofstetter formula (HF).
Results: The average AC push up/push down value was significantly better than the HF prediction for this age range (8.04±3.09 vs 6.23±0.80 D), although 22.5% of subjects had mean AC below their HF value (5.36±0.99 D). The average NPC push up/push down value was 12.0±4.69 cm. The mean binocular AC value using the push up measure was significantly better than the push down measure (8.5±3.4 vs 7.6±3.0 D). The mean NPC value using the push up measure was significantly worse than the push down measure (13.0±5.0 vs 11.0±4.7 cm). The most frequent primary diagnosis was ill-sustained accommodation (54%), followed by accommodative insufficiency (18%), and accommodative infacility (12%).
Conclusion: Based upon a standardized assessment of accommodation and vergence, ill-sustained accommodation was the most frequent diagnosis among this population.

Keywords: eyestrain, myopia, accommodation, vergence, lag, spherical aberration

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