Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 4 » Issue 5

Errorless learning and spaced retrieval techniques to relearn instrumental activities of daily living in mild Alzheimer’s disease: A case report study

Authors Thivierge, Simard M, Jean L, Grandmaison

Published 10 October 2008 Volume 2008:4(5) Pages 987—999


Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Stéphanie Thivierge1,2, Martine Simard1,2, Léonie Jean1,2, Éric Grandmaison3

1School of Psychology, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; 2Centre de Recherche Université Laval Robert-Giffard, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; 3Neurosciences and Rehabilitation Units, Moncton Hospital, Moncton, NB, Canada

Abstract: Previous studies on cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were principally aimed at making patients learn items not related to functional needs. However, AD patients also experience difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The goal of the present multiple baseline case report study was to assess the preliminary efficacy and tolerability of an individualized cognitive training program using the errorless learning (EL) and spaced-retrieval (SR) techniques to relearn forgotten IADLs in mild AD. Following an exhaustive neuropsychological assessment, two participants received two training sessions per week during four weeks. Participant A was trained to use his voice mail and Participant B, to manage the messages from his answering machine. The results showed that the program was well tolerated and improved performance on the trained tasks. These ameliorations were maintained over a 5-week period. The effects of the training did not have any impact on global cognitive functions since the results on these measures remained relatively stable. This case report demonstrated preliminary efficacy of a new cognitive training program using EL and SR techniques tailored to the needs of AD patients. This is an important finding since the loss of these capacities alters autonomy in AD patients.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, errorless learning, spaced retrieval, memory, IADLs

Creative Commons License © 2008 The Author(s). This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.