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Epidemiology of Dermatophyte and Non-Dermatophyte Fungi Infection in Ethiopia

Authors Araya S, Tesfaye B, Fente D

Received 16 January 2020

Accepted for publication 31 March 2020

Published 8 April 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 291—297


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg

Shambel Araya,1 Betelhem Tesfaye,2 Desalegn Fente1

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Rank Higher Specialized Dermatology Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Shambel Araya Tel +251 939459529

Background: Dermatophytosis represents one of the common infectious diseases worldwide and it is a major public health problem around the globe. The disease causes considerable morbidity and still continues to increase especially in developing countries.
Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and the spectrum of fungal agents in patients attending Rank Higher Specialized Dermatology Clinic.
Methods: A cross-sectional study has been conducted, in which 318 samples from 318 suspected patients were collected. Samples include hair, nail, and skin. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud’s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Isolates were identified by studying the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the colonies.
Results: Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 53.4% of the cases. Patients with age group 1– 14 years were more affected. Of 318 samples, fungi were detected in 133 (54.4%) by direct wet mount while 148/315 (46.5%) of them were culture positive. From these 72/148 (46.8%) were dermatophytes. T. tonsurans was the most common pathogen in tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea corporis. Among dermatophyte isolates, T. tonsurans 29/72 (40.2%) was the most common cause of infection. Among non-dermatophyte molds, Cladosporiumspp. 21/63 (33.3%) was predominant isolate followed by Neoscytalidim dimidatum  11/63 (17.4%) and Alternariaspp. 9/63 (14.2%), respectively. Yeasts also account for 13 (8.7%) of the total suspects of dermatophytosis.
Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of dermatophytes was higher in tinea capitis 46/72 (63.8%) and T. tonsurans 29/72 (40%) was the dominant-isolated dermatophyte. Recovery of a large number of dermatophytes and non-dermatophyte fungi in our study showed that non-dermatophyte fungi are emerging as important causes of dermatophytosis warranting further intensive epidemiological studies that have public health significance are needed.

Keywords: dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, dermatophytosis, fungi, infection

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