Enhanced immunization via dissolving microneedle array-based delivery system incorporating subunit vaccine and saponin adjuvant
Received 15 January 2017
Accepted for publication 18 April 2017
Published 4 July 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 4763—4772
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Ji-Hui Zhao,1,* Qi-Bo Zhang,1,* Bao Liu,2 Xiang-Hua Piao,1 Yu-Lu Yan,1 Xiao-Ge Hu,1 Kuan Zhou,1 Yong-Tai Zhang,1 Nian-Ping Feng1
1School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Anethesiology Department, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA) was combined with platycodin (PD), a saponin adjuvant. To reduce the toxicity of PD, OVA, and adjuvant were loaded together into liposomes before being incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array.
Methods: OVA- and PD-loaded liposomes (OVA-PD-Lipos) were prepared using the film dispersion method. Their uptake behavior, toxicity to mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs), and hemolytic activity to rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. The OVA-PD-Lipos were incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. The chemical stability of OVA and the physical stability of OVA-PD-Lipos in microneedle arrays were investigated. The immune response of Institute of Cancer Research mice and potential skin irritation reaction of rabbits to OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs were evaluated.
Results: The uptake of OVA by mouse BMDCs was greatly enhanced when OVA was prepared as OVA-PD-Lipos, and in this form, the toxicity of PD was dramatically reduced. OVA was chemically stable as OVA-PD-Lipos, when OVA-PD-Lipos was incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. Institute of Cancer Research mice treated with OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs showed a significantly enhanced immune response. PD combined with OVA elicited a balanced Th1 and Th2 humoral immune response in mice, with minimal irritation in rabbit skin.
Conclusion: The dissolving microneedle array-based system is a promising delivery vehicle for subunit vaccine and its adjuvant.
Keywords: subunit vaccine, saponin adjuvant, liposomes, dissolving microneedle array, intradermal vaccination
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