Enhanced endothelial cell functions on rosette nanotube-coated titanium vascular stents
Eli Fine1, Lijie Zhang1, Hicham Fenniri2, Thomas J Webster1
1Department of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Abstract: One of the main problems with current vascular stents is a lack of endothelial cell interactions, which if sufficient, would create a uniform healthy endothelium masking the underlying foreign metal from inflammatory cell interference. Moreover, if endothelial cells from the arterial wall do not adhere to the stent, the stent can become loose and dislodge. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to design a novel biomimetic nanostructured coating (that does not contain drugs) on conventional vascular stent materials (specifically, titanium) for improving vascular stent applications. Rosette nanotubes (RNTs) are a new class of biomimetic nanotubes that self-assemble from DNA base analogs and have been shown in previous studies to sufficiently coat titanium and enhance osteoblast cell functions. RNTs have many desirable properties for use as vascular stent coatings including spontaneous self-assembly in body fluids, tailorable surface chemistry for specific implant applications, and nanoscale dimensions similar to those of the natural vascular extracellular matrix. Importantly, the results of this study provided the first evidence that RNTs functionalized with lysine (RNT–K), even at low concentrations, significantly increase endothelial cell density over uncoated titanium. Specifically, 0.01 mg/mL RNT–K coated titanium increased endothelial cell density by 37% and 52% compared to uncoated titanium after 4 h and three days, respectively. The excellent cytocompatibility properties of RNTs (as demonstrated here for the first time for endothelial cells) suggest the need for the further exploration of these novel nanostructured materials for vascular stent applications.
Keywords: stents, nanotechnology, self-assembly, rosette nanotubes, endothelial cells, titanium
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