Back to Journals » Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine » Volume 4

Emerging viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system

Authors Balin B, Hammond

Received 17 February 2012

Accepted for publication 16 March 2012

Published 1 May 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 35—44

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NBHIV.S24201

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Brian J Balin, Christine J Hammond
Department of Pathology/Microbiology/Immunology and Forensic Medicine, Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Abstract: This review focuses on emerging viral and bacterial infections in the human central nervous system (CNS) that are responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. These infections include those responsible for acute neurological disease such as meningitis and encephalitis as well those associated with chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Recent changes in climate conditions and pollution have been precipitating factors leading to the emergence of many of these pathogenic organisms. In addition, increased urbanization, global travel, life span, and exposure to new vectors have promoted the organisms' spread across the globe. Categorization of many of these organisms includes identification of new species, recognition of new tropism to the CNS, spread into naïve demographic areas, increased human contact with zoonotic repositories including insect vectors, and reemergence of well-known organisms. These mechanisms are highlighted for the different organisms included in this review. Other mechanisms for CNS emergence such as genetic mutation of the organisms and immunosuppression and/or immunosenescence of the host are addressed. Viral and bacterial infections in chronic neurodegenerative diseases traditionally not thought to be infectious are considered. Although this review cannot be all-inclusive, the organisms included represent a sampling of extremely important microbes and their role in CNS pathogenesis in the twenty-first century.

Keywords: viruses, bacteria, central nervous system, emergence

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF] 

 

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

A new recombinant factor VIII: from genetics to clinical use

Santagostino E

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014, 8:2507-2515

Published Date: 12 December 2014

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010