Emerging options for the management of age-related macular degeneration with stem cells
Ingrid Mooney1, James LaMotte2
1Eye Design, Santa Fe, NM, USA; 2Department of Basic and Visual Science, Southern California College of Optometry, Fullerton, CA, USA
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a devastating retinal disease that occurs in later life as the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells die, with subsequent photoreceptor degeneration. In the past, RPE transplant surgeries gave evidence that AMD was potentially treatable, but it involved limited amounts of ocular tissue, and the complication rate was high. Then, stem cell transplants offered an unlimited supply of retinal precursors for endogenous repair and exogenous cell replacement. Debate continues as to which type of stem cell is most appropriate for treating AMD. The prospects include adult-derived progenitor stem cells (including progenitor cells from ocular tissues), hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Now the therapy is expanding into phase I human trials. This review examines the collective research contributions toward a clinical model of AMD management with stem cells.
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, pluripotent stem cells, stem cells, transplantation, retinal pigmented epithelium
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