Efficacy of the anti-VZV (anti-HSV3) vaccine in HSV1 and HSV2 recurrent herpes simplex disease: a prospective study
Jacqueline Le Goaster,1 Sylvie Gonzalo,2 Patrice Bourée,1 Frederic Tangy,3 Anne-Lise Haenni4
1Department of Tropical Diseases, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire (CHU), University of Paris XI, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, 2Biomnis Laboratory, Ivry-sur-Seine, 3Retro-Virology, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Pasteur Institute, Paris; 4Jacques Monod Institute, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), University of Paris VII, Paris, France
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using the anti-varicella zoster virus (anti-VZV, also known as anti-HSV3) vaccine against orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2). This was suggested by study of the phylogenetic tree of members of the herpes virus family, which showed a close relationship between VZV (HSV3) and the HSV1 and HSV2 herpes viruses.
Methods: The present prospective study was conducted from January 2005 through January 2011. Twenty-four patients afflicted with HSV1 and HSV2 herpes recurrences over a period of years, numbering 6–8 and more recurrences per year, agreed to receive the anti-VZV vaccine. They were compared with 26 nonvaccinated patients presenting with herpes simplex diseases 2–5 times a year. All 50 patients were documented with anti-HSV1, anti-HSV2, and anti-VZV antibody serological testing.
Results: From 2005 through 2011, for the 24 anti-VZV vaccinated patients, the average number of herpes relapses decreased to 0, correlated with an increased anti-VZV antibody level and clinical recovery of all patients, whereas no improvement was observed for the 26 nonvaccinated herpes patients.
Conclusion: Data for the anti-VZV serological antibody levels tested before and after anti-VZV vaccination showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase among vaccinated patients. This suggests defective anti-VZV immune power in these patients. After 6 years of positive results for anti-VZV vaccine, this is a logical and fair hypothesis. We can now undertake a randomized study to confirm these findings.
Keywords: HSV1/HSV2 herpes prevention, anti-VZV (HSV3) vaccine, anti-VZV vaccine therapy
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