Efficacy and safety of primary surgery with postoperative radiotherapy in head and neck mucosal melanoma: a single-arm Phase II study
Received 23 August 2018
Accepted for publication 15 November 2018
Published 14 December 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 6985—6996
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Harikrishna Nakshatri
Ji-Jin Yao,1,2,* Fan Zhang,2,* Guang-Shun Zhang,1 Xiao-Wu Deng,1 Wang-Jian Zhang,3 Wayne R Lawrence,3 Lu Zou,1 Xiao-Shi Zhang,4 Li-Xia Lu1
1Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519001, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA; 4Department of Melanoma, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: There still remains no well-established treatment strategy for head and neck mucosal melanoma (HNMM). We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of primary surgery with postoperative radiotherapy for this disease.
Patients and methods: A single-arm, Phase II clinical trial was conducted at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center. Patients with nonmetastatic, histologically proven HNMM were prospectively enrolled. Patients received primary surgery followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy with an equivalent dose at 2 Gy per fraction of 65–70 Gy to CTV1 (high-risk regions including tumor bed) and 50–55 Gy to CTV2 (low-risk regions). Additional use of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) depended on consultation from a multidisciplinary team. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03138642.
Results: A total of 33 patients were enrolled and analyzed between July 2010 and November 2016. There were 18 (54.5%) patients with T3 disease and 15 (45.5%) patients with T4a disease. The median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range 27–83 years), and 61% of the cohort were males. The overall median follow-up duration was 25.3 months (range 5.3–67.1 months). The 3-year overall survival (OS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 44.4, 91.7, 78.1, and 41.7%, respectively. Patients with T4a disease showed significantly inferior OS (P=0.049) and DMFS (P=0.040) than those with T3 disease. Prophylactic neck radiation (PNR) was nearly associated with superior RRFS (P=0.078). However, there was no significant difference in OS, LRFS, RRFS, and DMFS for patients treated with or without AC (P>0.05 for all). Toxicities were generally mild to moderate.
Conclusion: Primary surgery with postoperative radiotherapy yielded excellent local control and acceptable toxicity profile for HNMM. Nevertheless, high rates of distant metastases resulted in limited survival.
Keywords: head and neck mucosal melanoma, efficacy, safety, primary surgery, postoperative radiotherapy
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