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Effects of Caffeic Acid and Its Derivatives on Bone: A Systematic Review

Authors Ekeuku SO, Pang KL, Chin KY

Received 17 October 2020

Accepted for publication 18 December 2020

Published 22 January 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 259—275

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S287280

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Manfred Ogris


Sophia Ogechi Ekeuku, Kok-Lun Pang, Kok-Yong Chin

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Correspondence: Kok-Yong Chin
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel +60 3-9145 9573
Email chinkokyong@ppukm.ukm.edu.my

Purpose: Caffeic acid is a metabolite of hydroxycinnamate and phenylpropanoid, which are commonly synthesized by all plant species. It is present in various food sources that are known for their antioxidant properties. As an antioxidant, caffeic acid ameliorates reactive oxygen species, which have been reported to cause bone loss. Some studies have highlighted the effects of caffeic acid against bone resorption.
Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify relevant studies on the effects of caffeic acid on bone. A comprehensive search was conducted from July to November 2020 using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Cellular, animal and human studies reporting the effects of caffeic acid, as a single compound, on bone cells or bone were considered.
Results: The literature search found 226 articles on this topic, but only 24 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The results showed that caffeic acid supplementation reduced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, possibly through its antioxidant potential and increased expression of osteoblast markers. However, some studies showed that caffeic acid did not affect bone resorption in ovariectomized rats and might impair bone mechanical properties in normal rats.
Conclusion: Caffeic acid potentially regulates the bone remodelling process by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, as well as osteoblast apoptosis. Thus, it has medicinal values against bone diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, bone, osteoclast, osteoblast, osteoporosis

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