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Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Authors Chin KY, Kamaruddin AAA, Low NY, Ima-Nirwana S

Received 18 March 2016

Accepted for publication 12 April 2016

Published 13 June 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 767—773

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S108772

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Supriya Swarnkar

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker

Kok-Yong Chin,1 Alia Annessa Ain Kamaruddin,2 Nie Yen Low,2 Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana1

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, 2ASASIpintar, PERMATApintar National Gifted Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Background: Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices.
Results: The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05).
Conclusion: A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis.

Keywords:
aging, osteopenia, osteoporosis, prevalence, T-score

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