Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Received 18 March 2016
Accepted for publication 12 April 2016
Published 13 June 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 767—773
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Supriya Swarnkar
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Kok-Yong Chin,1 Alia Annessa Ain Kamaruddin,2 Nie Yen Low,2 Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana1
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, 2ASASIpintar, PERMATApintar National Gifted Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Background: Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices.
Results: The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05).
Conclusion: A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis.
Keywords: aging, osteopenia, osteoporosis, prevalence, T-score
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