Effect of breastfeeding piperine on the learning of offspring mice: interaction with caffeine and diazepam
Ali Akbar Moghadamnia1,2, Vahid Zangoori2, Seyed Sadegh Zargar-Nattaj2, Pooya Tayebi2, Yasaman Moghadamnia3, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei4
1Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Physics, Alzzahra University, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Anatomical Iran; Sciences and Embryology, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: Piperine, the main alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum), has been suggested to display several pharmacological properties, including pain relief, anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like, antianxiety, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of piperine on learning in mice and the interaction of the effect with caffeine and diazepam. Piperine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was injected into the mouse mothers or nursing dams during breastfeeding for 25 days at five-day intervals. After feeding the newborn mice, their learning was evaluated using a step-through passive avoidance task. Mouse learning was assessed 1 hr and 24 hr and 1 week after a training session. Piperine increased learning in the first (1 hr: 243.33 s vs 55.17 s, P = 0.002) and third assessments (1 week: 226 s vs 97 s, P < 0.05) post-training, but no significant change was seen at the second (24 hr) assessment. Piperine improved the effect of a low dose of caffeine (25 mg/kg intraperitoneally after a shock of 2 s duration) in a first assessment (295.17 s vs 149.17 s, P = 0.026) compared to a higher dose of caffeine. Piperine reversed diazepam (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) suppression of learning 24 hours after training by a 4 s shock (298 s vs 135.67 s, P = 0.03). According to the results, piperine alone significantly increased learning 1 hour and 1 week after training assessments, and learning can be improved in the short term when followed by piperine administration. It was also shown that piperine can potentiate the effect of a low dose of caffeine and can reverse the effect of diazepam.
Keywords: piperine, piper nigrum, caffeine, diazepam, learning, memory, breastfeeding, step-through passive avoidance task
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