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Double-stranded phosphodiester cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide complexed with calcium phosphate as a potent vaccine adjuvant for activating cellular and Th1-type humoral immunities

Authors Hanagata N, Li X, Chen MH, Li J, Hattori S

Received 20 September 2017

Accepted for publication 10 November 2017

Published 20 December 2017 Volume 2018:13 Pages 43—62


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Nobutaka Hanagata,1,2 Xianglan Li,1 Min-Hua Chen,1 Jie Li,1 Shinya Hattori1

1Nanotechnology Innovation Station, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, 2Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Abstract: Conventional class B cytosine-guanine (CpG) (CpG-B) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODNs) consisting of a single-stranded (ss) phosphorothioate (PT) backbone (ss CpG-B-PT) is converted from a proinflammatory cytokine inducer to a type-I interferon (IFN) inducer when complexed with cationic materials. In this study, we designed ss CpG-B and double-stranded (ds) CpG-B ODNs with a phosphodiester (PD) backbone (ss CpG-B-PD and ds CpG-B-PD, respectively) that became type-I IFN inducers upon complexation with Lipofectamine 2000 (Lipo), a cationic liposome. The ds CpG-B-PD complex induced higher IFN-β expression in mouse macrophage-like RAW264 cells than ss CpG-B-PD and ss CpG-B-PT complexes. The fold induction of IFN-β increased with the number of CpG motifs in ds CpG-B-PD, and a complex of ds CpG-B-PD consisting of 72 base pairs with nine CpG motifs (ds CpG-B72-PD) and Lipo showed the highest capacity to induce IFN-β. The materials and method used for complexation influenced the degree of IFN-β induction: ds CpG-B72-PD entrapped by calcium phosphate (CaP) (ds CpG-B72-PD/CaP) showed a higher induction capacity than ds CpG-B72-PD adsorbed onto the CaP surface. Entrapment of ds CpG-B72-PD by CaP also enhanced the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12. Vaccinating mice with ds CpG-B72-PD/CaP in conjunction with ovalbumin (OVA) increased the ratios of OVA-specific CD8+ T cells to total CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and of OVA-specific IgG2a associated with helper T (Th)1 cells to OVA-specific IgG1 associated with Th2 cells. These results indicate that ds CpG-B72-PD/CaP is an effective vaccine adjuvant that can activate both cellular and Th1-type humoral immune responses.

Keywords: CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, calcium phosphate, vaccine adjuvant, cellular immunity, humoral immunity

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