Dosing of U-100 insulin and associated outcomes among Medicare enrollees with type 1 or type 2 diabetes
Authors Eby E, Van Brunt K, Brusko C, Curtis B, Lage M
Received 9 December 2014
Accepted for publication 16 February 2015
Published 17 June 2015 Volume 2015:10 Pages 991—1001
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Elizabeth L Eby,1 Kate Van Brunt,2 Cynthia Brusko,3 Bradley Curtis,4 Maureen J Lage5
1Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis IN USA; 2Eli Lilly and Co., Windlesham, UK; 3Lilly USA, LLC, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN, USA; 5HealthMetrics Outcomes Research, LLC, Bonita Springs, FL, USA
Objective: To examine costs, resource utilization, adherence, and hypoglycemic events among various doses of U-100 insulin regimens among elderly patients (age ≥65 years) diagnosed with diabetes.
Methods: Truven Health Analytics Medicare databases from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2011 were utilized. General linear models with a gamma distribution and log link were used to examine costs, while logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to examine resource utilization and hypoglycemic events. Analyses controlled for patient characteristics, pre-period comorbidities, general health, and use of antidiabetic medications as well as index dose of insulin.
Results: All-cause inpatient, emergency room, and outpatients costs, as well as diabetes-related inpatient costs, were highest among individuals who were treated with an index dose of 10–100 units/day followed by >300 units/day, while drug costs and total costs generally increased as index dosage increased. Resource utilization generally followed the same pattern as costs, with number of office visits increasing as the dose increased and the highest hospital length of stay, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and number of diabetes-related hospitalizations were generally highest among those in the lowest and highest index dose cohorts. Compared to patients who initiated with an index dose of 10–100 units/day, all other patients were significantly less likely to achieve an adherence threshold of 80% based upon index dose range, and while those with an index dose of >100–150 units/day were significantly more likely to experience a hypoglycemic event.
Conclusion: These results suggest that, for elderly individuals with diabetes, there is a higher patient burden among those who receive the lowest and highest insulin doses.
Keywords: insulin, diabetes, costs, resource utilization, adherence, hypoglycemia
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