Does the World Health Organization criterion adequately define glaucoma blindness?
Authors Mokhles P, Schouten JSAG, Beckers HJM, Webers CAB
Received 6 December 2016
Accepted for publication 21 January 2017
Published 2 March 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 473—480
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Yang Liu
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
P Mokhles, JSAG Schouten, HJM Beckers, CAB Webers
University Eye Clinic Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands
Purpose: Blindness in glaucoma is difficult to assess with merely the use of the current World Health Organization (WHO) definition (a visual field restricted to 10° in a radius around central fixation), as this criterion does not cover other types of visual field loss that are encountered in clinical practice and also depict blindness. In this study, a 5-point ordinal scale was developed for the assessment of common visual field defect patterns, with the purpose of comparing blindness as outcome to the findings with the WHO criterion when applied to the same visual fields. The scores with the two methods were compared between two ophthalmologists. In addition, the variability between these assessors in assessing the different visual field types was determined.
Methods: Two glaucoma specialists randomly assessed a sample of 423 visual fields from 77 glaucoma patients, stripped of all indices and masked for all patient variables. They applied the WHO criterion and a 5-point ordinal scale to all visual fields for the probability of blindness.
Results: The WHO criterion was mostly found applicable and in good agreement for both assessors to visual fields depicting central island of vision or a temporal crescent. The percentage of blindness scores was higher when using the ordinal scale, 21.7% and 19.6% for assessors A and B, respectively, versus 14.4% and 11.3% for the WHO criterion. However, Kappa was lower, 0.71 versus 0.78 for WHO.
Conclusions: The WHO criterion is strictly applied and shows good agreement between assessors; however, blindness does not always fit this criterion. More visual fields are labeled as blind when a less stringent criterion is used, but this leads to more interobserver variability. A new criterion that describes the extent, location, and depth of visual field defects together with their consequence for the patient’s quality of life is needed for the classification of glaucoma blindness.
Keywords: glaucoma, blindness, visual fields, World Health Organization
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