Dispositional Mindfulness and Past-Negative Time Perspective: The Differential Mediation Effects of Resilience and Inner Peace in Meditators and Non-Meditators
Received 3 September 2019
Accepted for publication 16 April 2020
Published 6 May 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 397—405
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Igor Elman
Jingjing Ge,1,2 Jingjing Yang,3 Jingjing Song,1 Guangyu Jiang,1,2 Yong Zheng1
1Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Humanities and Management, Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Yong Zheng
Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 13667636167
Fax + 86 23 68254139
Purpose: Past-negative time perspective (PNTP) can affect our everyday lives and is associated with negative emotions, unhealthy behaviors, rumination, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dispositional mindfulness may be able to reduce the negative effects of PNTP; however, few studies have investigated their relationship. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the effect dispositional mindfulness has on PNTP, as well as the mediating role of resilience and inner peace in this regard.
Methods: This study investigated the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported mindfulness, resilience, inner peace, and PNTP. In order to further explore the relationship between mindfulness and PNTP, this study specially selected and analyzed the samples of 185 meditators and 181 non-meditators.
Results: Correlation analysis revealed that mindfulness is significantly positively correlated with resilience and inner peace. Conversely, PNTP is significantly negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and inner peace. Structural equation model analysis revealed that resilience and inner peace partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and PNTP. Furthermore, a multi-group analysis showed that the mediating effects are different between meditators and non-meditators. For meditators, the effect of mindfulness on PNTP was fully mediated by resilience and inner peace. For non-meditators, the effect of mindfulness on PNTP was only partially mediated by resilience and inner peace.
Conclusion: Based on the significant differences between the mediational models of meditators and non-meditators, we believe that dispositional mindfulness can negatively predict PNTP, and practicing meditation consistently improves dispositional mindfulness, resilience and inner peace and effectively reduces PNTP. Our findings indicate that a combination of mindfulness and PNTP could be used to design new psychological interventions to reduce the symptoms of mental health concerns such as negative bias, rumination, depression, anxiety, and PTSD.
Keywords: psychological intervention, resilience, meditation, past-negative time perspective, unhealthy behaviors, inner peace
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