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Dietary Habit and Other Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease Among Patients Attending Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

Authors Hussien FM, Hassen HY

Received 2 February 2020

Accepted for publication 24 April 2020

Published 19 May 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 119—127


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal

Foziya Mohammed Hussien,1 Hamid Yimam Hassen2

1Department of Public Health Nutrition, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2Department of Primary and Interdisciplinary Care, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Correspondence: Foziya Mohammed Hussien Tel +251 913714985

Background: In low- and middle-income countries, the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising due to poor access to early detection and management services. In Ethiopia, little is known about the context-specific risk factors and their magnitude, particularly the dietary habit of patients is not studied. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the dietary and other risk factors of CKD in Northeast Ethiopia.
Methods: We conducted a facility-based unmatched case–control study utilizing quantitative method of data collection. Data were collected on a total of 66 cases and 134 controls using structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Dietary habit was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Medical history, patient chart review and physical examination were employed to collect other relevant information. To identify independent predictors of CKD, we conducted a multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Results: About 54.5% cases and 46.3% of controls were female, while 40.9% of cases and 38.8% of controls were within the age group of 36– 55. All cases and 128 (95.5%) controls consumed meat in the last year. Forty-six (69.7%) cases and 74 (55.2%) controls use palm oil as the main cooking oil. History of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.39; 95%CI: 1.17– 4.89), anemia (AOR=2.38; 95%CI: 1.04– 5.42), palm oil use (AOR=2.10; 95%CI: 1.01– 4.35) and family history of CKD (AOR=8.77; 95%CI: 3.73– 20.63) were significantly associated with the risk of having CKD.
Conclusion: Meat consumption and use of palm oil are higher among patients with CKD than controls. History of hypertension, anemia, family history of CKD and palm oil consumption were found to be risk factors for CKD. Dietary counseling interventions and dietary modifications might help in CKD prevention. Furthermore, routine urinalysis and estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for all hospitalized patients with hypertension and anemia could help to detect CKD at an earlier stage for a better prognosis.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, diet, hypertension, anemia, cooking oil

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