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Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies

Authors Zeev MS, Miller D, Latkany R

Received 14 January 2014

Accepted for publication 3 March 2014

Published 20 March 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 581—590

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S45444

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 6


Maya Salomon-Ben Zeev,1 Darby Douglas Miller,2,3 Robert Latkany1,2

1
The Dry Eye Center at Physician Eyecare of New York, 2New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, 3Laser and Corneal Surgery Associates, New York, NY, USA

Abstract:
Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye.

Keywords: cornea, dry eye, tear film, stain

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