Back to Journals » Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology » Volume 17

Development of Home Beauty Devices for Facial Rejuvenation: Establishment of Efficacy Evaluation System

Authors Bu P, Duan R, Luo J, Yang T, Liu N, Wen C

Received 29 November 2023

Accepted for publication 19 January 2024

Published 8 March 2024 Volume 2024:17 Pages 553—563


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Rungsima Wanitphakdeedecha

Pengzhi Bu,1 Ruqian Duan,1 Ji Luo,1 Tao Yang,1 Ning Liu,2 Chuanbiao Wen1

1Institute of Intelligent Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611137, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Acupuncture and Massage, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611137, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Chuanbiao Wen, Institute of Intelligent Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China, Email [email protected]

Background: Home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation utilizing technologies such as radiofrequency, microcurrent, and light emitting diode have gained widespread attention due to their claimed ability to improve skin tightness and elasticity, making them popular among consumers. However, there is controversy within the industry regarding the effectiveness and safety of these devices.
Objective: This study aims to verify the safety and effectiveness of these home beauty devices in treating skin aging based on relevant efficacy evaluation indicators.
Methods: A systematic search of PubMed and web of science was conducted to include original research literature on the efficacy of home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation over the past two decades. The selected literature was processed and analyzed based on efficacy evaluation indicators such as sample size, follow-up period, experimental results, adverse reactions, and others.
Results: After screening, a total of 18 clinical studies were included. A comprehensive analysis of the experimental results and adverse reaction indicators from existing literature revealed that home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation can improve skin aging to a certain extent. Apart from transient redness and swelling, no other adverse reactions were observed.
Conclusion: Despite the variety of home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation available in the market, corresponding research reports are limited. Existing studies suffer from issues such as small sample sizes and short follow-up periods, highlighting the need for a more comprehensive efficacy evaluation system. Furthermore, the physical stimulation of meridian acupoints by home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation may meet the multi-dimensional anti-aging needs of patients, suggesting a potential direction for future research.

Keywords: facial rejuvenation, home beauty devices, radiofrequency, LED, microcurrent, Meridian acupoints


With the increasing aging population and rising consumer demand, there is significant attention on strategies to delay the characteristic signs of skin aging, including sagging, deepening wrinkles, and reduced elasticity.1 Home anti-aging beauty devices have gained widespread popularity among consumers due to their low cost, convenience, and personalization advantages. These devices utilize technologies such as radiofrequency, LED, and microcurrent to achieve the improvement of skin aging through the effects of light, heat, and electric stimulation on different layers of the skin (Figure 1). However, as these devices are primarily intended for individual or household use and lack professional medical supervision, their energy output levels are lower than those of medical devices.2 Consequently, the effectiveness of these devices in effectively improving facial aging is a contentious issue. Furthermore, some news reports have indicated potential risks, such as excessive levels of harmful metal content and the risk of low-temperature burns.3,4 Therefore, the safety of these devices must be considered. This paper summarizes and analyzes original research literature related to home radiofrequency, LED, and microcurrent beauty devices for improving skin aging, using efficacy assessment indicators including experimental methods, sample sizes, experimental results, adverse reactions, and others. This analysis aims to validate the effectiveness and safety of home anti-aging beauty devices in improving skin aging.

Figure 1 Home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation utilize technologies including radiofrequency (RF), LED, and microcurrent. These technologies provide thermal, light, and electric stimulation to different layers of the skin.

The Definition of Home Beauty Devices for Facial Rejuvenation

According to “GB/T36419-2018 Household and Similar Use Skin Beautifying Apparatus”, a “home beauty device” is generally designed for the general public to use at home to improve their own skin aesthetics, with a rated voltage not exceeding 250 V for household and similar-use skin beautifying apparatus.5 Home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation specifically refer to a category of devices that utilize radiofrequency, laser, phototherapy, and other photoelectric principles to improve skin aging.6 As laser-type beauty devices are currently less common and intense pulsed light (IPL) beauty devices fall under medical device regulations, this study focuses only on facial rejuvenation beauty devices primarily employing radiofrequency, LED, and microcurrent technologies.

Technologies Used in Home Beauty Devices for Facial Rejuvenation


Radiofrequency delivers high-frequency electric currents to the skin tissue, generating intense heat due to the skin’s impedance.7 The localized increase in skin temperature induces changes in the helical structure of collagen in the skin. This, in turn, stimulates fibroblasts to synthesize new collagen and elastic fibers. Heat shock proteins (HSP) such as HSP72, HSP47, transforming growth factor-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor show significant increases after RF treatment, effectively tightening the skin and reducing wrinkles.8–10 Given the challenge of controlling the high energy of monopolar RF, home RF beauty devices often use bipolar or multipolar RF, eliminating the need for additional cooling and effectively preventing overheating of the epidermis, reducing the risk of burns during use.11 However, multipolar RF may have a weaker therapeutic effect than monopolar RF due to its shallower energy penetration.9 Currently, there is no literature reporting on the application of RF technology to acupuncture points in meridians. In traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion, a commonly used method, achieves the function of warming and promoting the flow of meridians by locally stimulating acupuncture points with heat, activating specific receptors, heat-sensitive immune responses, and heat shock proteins.12

In experimental studies on home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation, four studies employed the TriPollar portable RF beauty device (Table 1). A randomized controlled trial divided skin samples from the neck or abdomen into groups: samples without UV aging and RF treatment, samples with UV aging and no RF treatment, and samples with both UV aging and RF treatment. Histological analysis revealed a significant increase in collagen in the dermal layer of samples treated with TriPollar for 5 minutes compared to the control group (p<0.05).13 Another study using TriPollar on 12 subjects for personalized home RF treatments (4–11 sessions) showed regeneration of collagen and metabolic effects on fat, achieving skin tightening and body contouring.14 A randomized controlled trial found that using the home RF device TriPollar improved abdominal and thigh circumference. After the sixth and twelfth weeks of follow-up, adipocyte appearance and collagen increased by 34% and 31%, respectively, and average abdominal laxity decreased from 1.4 to 0.8, with an average reduction of 2.4 cm in thigh circumference without significant weight changes in the subjects.15 Two additional non-randomized controlled trials using the home RF beauty device TriPollar demonstrated positive effects on facial wrinkles16 and facial skin firmness.17 Three studies using the portable RF beauty device Newa in non-randomized controlled experiments for facial aging showed improvement (Table 1). In a study involving 45 participants receiving RF treatment five times a week for the first four weeks and twice a week for the next eight weeks, statistically significant improvements were observed in skin tightness and radiance, with some improvement in jawline, skin elasticity, and wrinkles, though statistically insignificant (P>0.05).18 Another study with 62 participants receiving RF treatment five times a week for four weeks showed significant improvement in facial wrinkles. Blind assessments by three non-participating physicians based on Fitzpatrick scores revealed a significant improvement in facial wrinkles (P<0.05). However, a three-month follow-up revealed a decline in facial wrinkle scores after treatment cessation.19 Results from another Newa study showed improvements in pigmentation, periorbital wrinkles, and facial sagging after treatments twice a week for four weeks. No significant changes were observed in melanin and erythema levels.20 In a randomized controlled trial using the unipolar home RF beauty device DermaWand for eyebrow lifting (Table 1), subjects in the experimental group showed a statistically significant average reduction of 1.338±0.170 cm in the distance from the eyebrows to the hairline after a 3-minute treatment, while the placebo group showed no significant change.21 In these studies, some subjects experienced short-lived erythema or swelling after treatment, disappearing within an hour, with no other adverse reactions.

Table 1 Summary of 9 Clinical Trials on Home Beauty Devices for Facial Rejuvenation Based on Radiofrequency (RF) Technology

Light Emitting Diode(LED)

The therapeutic potential of light has long been established. Photobiomodulation involves the activation of cellular mitochondrial respiratory pathways, stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and the generation of growth factors and extracellular matrix.22 LED photomodulation has been shown to mitigate UVA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expressions through mitochondrial retrograde signaling. This, in turn, enhances antioxidant enzyme expression in a peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha-dependent manner, improving skin aging conditions.23 In a 10-day study, using 635nm LED light on the acupoints Dazhui and Mingmen of rats with Kidney Yang Deficiency, similar therapeutic effects to moxibustion were observed. This suggests that LED can act on acupuncture points in meridians and have positive effects.24 Since LEDs operate at power levels below what the FDA considers to be medically harmful, they are not subject to the regulations of medical device laws.2

In a clinical study involving a home beauty device combining local serum, LED, and massage (Table 2), subjects experienced a reduction in facial wrinkles, with a significant enhancement in skin density and radiance after continuous treatment for 28 days.25 In a non-randomized controlled trial lasting 8 weeks, the Para. L Dema LED Mask portable LED beauty device (Table 2), combining 637nm and 854nm, was used to treat the left side of the faces of 24 participants twice a week. Results showed that the skin elasticity and moisture on the LED-treated left side were significantly higher than the control group, with improvements in skin texture.26 Additionally, three clinical studies focused on the Omnilux handheld LED beauty device combining 830nm and 633nm red lights (Table 2). In a study where 22 participants alternately received a total of 8 exposures of near-infrared light at 830nm and red light at 633nm over 4 weeks, 74% reported significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, 84% reported improved skin tone, and over 70% reported improvements in smoothness and clarity, with 68% reporting improved tightness and 47% reporting enhanced elasticity27. In a randomized trial where 23 participants received treatment on one-half of their faces using Omnilux, blind photographic assessments showed 59% of patients with clinical improvement, along with changes in skin texture, tone, and fine lines. However, no changes in skin hydration or elasticity were observed.28 After 9 sessions of 20-minute continuous light treatment, 91% of 13 participants with wrinkles or fine lines around the eyes and nasolabial area reported improved skin tone, and 82% reported enhanced smoothness in the treated area. The study suggested better results in the periorbital region compared to the nasolabial area.29 A few participants experienced transient erythema after the initial use of the device, with no other reported adverse events.

Table 2 Summary of 4 Clinical Trials on Home Beauty Devices for Facial Rejuvenation Based on LED Technology


Microcurrent utilizes low- to medium-frequency pulsed electric currents to generate an electric field as it passes through the skin. This stimulation affects the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and muscles, achieving anti-aging effects such as skin tightening, wrinkle reduction, and improvement of facial contours.30 Low-intensity electrical currents accelerate the repair of connective tissues in the dermis and subdermal layers. Microcurrent stimulation, being compatible with endogenous electrical currents at the cellular level, promotes tissue repair and has positive effects on fibroblast quantity, neovascularization, and epithelial thickness.31 Microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint can effectively stimulate changes in the activity of the brain’s sleep and positive emotion centers.31 In a study involving 34 patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain, standardized microcurrent stimulation at back acupoints resulted in an average pain reduction of 80%.32

Although microcurrent technology has been widely used in home anti-aging beauty devices, there are relatively few research reports specifically focusing on its application in these devices. In a randomized controlled trial using the portable microcurrent beauty device Slendertone Face (Table 3), 56 participants were included in the NMES (neuromuscular electrical stimulation) group, while the remaining 52 participants were placed in the control group. After 12 weeks of treatment, five times a week, participants in the NMES group showed significantly higher facial radiance, skin tone, and reduced wrinkles compared to the control group. Additionally, at weeks 5–6 of treatment, participants in the NMES group exhibited an 18.7% increase in muscle thickness compared to baseline, while the control group showed no significant change.30 A few participants experienced slight skin redness during treatment, with no other reported adverse reactions.

Table 3 Summary of 1 Clinical Trial on Home Beauty Devices for Facial Rejuvenation Based on Microcurrent Technology

Combination of Multiple Technologies

The combined use of multiple technologies can significantly enhance their effectiveness.33

In total, we found three clinical trial reports on home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation based on the combination of multiple technologies (Table 4). In an experiment using the TriPollar beauty device combining radiofrequency (1MHz frequency, maximum power of 50W) with dynamic muscle activation (DMA) using microcurrent, 11 participants showed significant improvement in facial skin fine lines, tightness, and brightness after 6 treatments.34 In two studies using home beauty devices combining radiofrequency with LED red light, the YA-MAN device (1MHz RF + 630 nm light source) was used in a randomized controlled trial with 33 participants receiving treatments five times a week for 12 weeks. Blind assessments using a 0–9 scoring system at baseline, second week, fourth week, eighth week, and twelfth week follow-ups showed significant improvement in facial wrinkles and sagging in the experimental group after treatment.35 In another non-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and safety of the Silk’n beauty device, 30 participants were assessed using blind Fitzpatrick scores after 21 treatments. The results showed an average decrease of 1.49 points in scores after treatment compared to before treatment.36

Table 4 Summary of 3 Clinical Trials on Home Beauty Devices for Facial Rejuvenation Based on the Combination of Multiple Technologies


This study summarizes 18 relevant clinical studies on home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation, focusing on evaluation indicators such as whether the experimental methods are randomized controlled trials, experimental sample size, follow-up period, experimental results, adverse reactions, and patient subjective assessments.

Regarding experimental methods, home beauty devices do not necessarily require rigorous double-blind randomized controlled trials, as medical devices do, to validate their effectiveness and safety. While non-randomized controlled trials provide reference values for the efficacy and safety of home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation, their evidence strength may be lower than that of randomized controlled trials. Out of the 18 studies on facial rejuvenation home beauty devices, only five were randomized controlled trials.13,15,21,25,35 The sample size directly influences the accuracy and reliability of research results, and some studies suffer from the limitation of having a small sample size, with only three studies19,21,30 having a sample size exceeding 50. A short follow-up period cannot verify the sustained efficacy of these devices, and the longest follow-up time in these studies was 12 weeks.15–19,27–30,34,35

The experimental results show that home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation can positively impact various aspects of facial aging, such as wrinkles, facial sagging, skin tightness, and radiance. Test reports14,16,17,19,25,30,36 indicate that during the treatment process and subsequent follow-up, subjects experienced only temporary redness and swelling, with no reports of serious adverse events. These experiments were conducted under the supervision of professional dermatologists, allowing for timely intervention and management of any severe incidents. Some reports14–17,28,30 also mention subjects’ satisfaction with the trial results, scored on a 5-point scale, with satisfaction averaging around 3. Additionally, user experience is crucial for the use of home beauty devices, as a comfortable experience and visible results are essential for user adherence.

However, there are also negative reports about home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation, such as false advertising. Some businesses mislead consumers by suggesting that higher radiofrequency levels yield better results, although there is no supporting evidence. The first generation of Stop Eye home radiofrequency beauty devices by the Initial Pufbrand was recalled due to the potential risk of high temperatures in the device probe leading to low-temperature burns. Improper use of laser or intense pulsed light (IPL) beauty devices can also result in eye injuries.

In conclusion, the limited number of research reports results in insufficient efficacy data, and although dermatologists have released the “Consensus on Selection and Use of Home Anti-Aging Beauty Devices”6 to guide consumers in the effective and safe use of these devices, it is still limited due to the diversity of products and a lack of long-term high-frequency clinical studies. Therefore, improving the efficacy evaluation system will help provide a more realistic and effective data foundation for home anti-aging devices. In April 2023, the China National Medical Products Administration released the “Guiding Principles for the Registration Review of Radiofrequency Beauty Devices”, further regulating the management of radiofrequency beauty devices. This indicates that, in the development of home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation, safety standards and supervision standards will become more complete and rigorous.

The theory of meridian acupoints, guided by the holistic principles of traditional Chinese medicine, has the potential to improve and delay the morphological appearance and symptoms manifested in the internal organ systems due to aging. This aims to enhance the aging state and slow down the aging process.37 A study demonstrated that using methods like moxibustion to regulate the immune function of aging mice significantly improved their immune degeneration. This was evident through a marked reduction in serum IL-2 levels and spleen lymphocyte transformation rates, while IL-6 levels increased.38 Acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) can lower the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the skin of aging mice induced by d-galactose, enhance the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), increase hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, improve skin tissue metabolism, raise telomerase activity, reduce epidermal thickness, and suppress the proliferation and inflammatory response of hair follicles and sebaceous glands.39,40 According to Chelsea Ma’s research, acupuncture can significantly alter facial elasticity, performing well overall in treating conditions such as chloasma and mild pigmentation. Acupuncture is also effective in clearing most acne lesions.41 Yoshiyama, M found that after facial acupuncture treatment, facial moisture and sebum content increased, and the values of the Facial Check Sheet (FCS) improved.42 Thread embedding at facial acupoints can effectively improve facial wrinkles, with fewer side effects and no bleeding or swelling observed.43 By injecting hyaluronic acid at facial acupoints such as Dicang and Cheqiao, it is possible to reduce blemishes, eliminate facial swelling, achieve a fairer and more radiant complexion, and downgrade the severity of nasolabial groove grading (WSRS) from the third level before treatment to the second level during continuous improvement.44 In summary, facial acupoints are distributed abundantly, and by stimulating these acupoints, it is possible to regulate and balance the body’s qi and blood, nourish organs, improve bodily functions, and achieve the goal of beauty and anti-aging. With advancing technology, an increasing number of physical stimuli (such as sound, light, and electricity) are being used for acupoint stimulation.45 Some research reports12,24,31,32 confirm that technologies like microcurrent and phototherapy can effectively act on acupoints. The combination of acupoints with home anti-aging devices can address both external and internal aging, achieving multi-level rejuvenation and becoming a new trend in home anti-aging devices. Currently, there is no research report on the combination of home anti-aging devices and meridian acupoint theory. Further research is needed to explore how to safely and effectively stimulate facial acupoints during the use of home facial anti-aging devices.


With the development of the beauty industry, home anti-aging beauty devices, as essential tools for skincare, can provide users with more private and effective beauty care services, meeting diverse and personalized needs. In this paper, we have found some evidence for the effectiveness and safety of facial rejuvenation home beauty devices. However, these findings are far from sufficient. Existing studies often employ non-randomized control methods, have small sample sizes, short follow-up periods, incomplete evaluation criteria for results, limited research on subjects’ satisfaction with effects and user experience, and other issues. Additionally, most beauty devices in the market only have third-party test reports, but these data are not publicly available. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive evaluation system to provide better evidence for their effectiveness and safety.

Acupuncture, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese medicine, has spread overseas and has successfully become an essential part of Western complementary and alternative medicine. Combining the theory of meridian acupoints with home beauty devices for facial rejuvenation to meet consumers’ multi-level anti-aging needs will be our focus in future research.

Ethics Statement

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.


This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.


1. Krutmann J, Bouloc A, Sore G, Bernard BA, Passeron T. The skin aging exposome. J Dermatol Sci. 2017;85(3):152–161. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2016.09.015

2. Juhász ML, Levin MK, Marmur ES. A review of available laser and intense light source home devices: a dermatologist’s perspective. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2017;16(4):438–443. doi:10.1111/jocd.12371

3. Ying L. Cosmetic instrument has the risk of burns and needs the industry standard urgently. China Quality Miles. 2021;341(08):69–71.

4. Fang D, Wenmin X. Cosmetic instrument nickel exceeded the standard should not copy foreign standards. Legal Person. 2020;2020(11):40–43.

5. GB/T 36419–2018, Skin beauty containers for household and similar purposes; 2024.

6. Li L. Expert consensus on the selection and use of anti-facial skin aging home beauty device. Chin J Dermatovenereology. 2023:2023;1–9.

7. Nassar S, Assem M, Mohamed D, Hassan G. The efficacy of radiofrequency, intense pulsed light and carboxytherapy in facial rejuvenation. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2020;22(6–8):256–264. doi:10.1080/14764172.2021.1880598

8. Labadie JG, Chilukuri S, Cohen J, et al. Noninvasive hands-free bipolar radiofrequency facial remodeling device for the improvement of skin appearance. Dermatol Surg. 2023;49(1):54–59. doi:10.1097/DSS.0000000000003666

9. Arpini RP, Arpini MS, Pochmann D, et al. Non-invasive radiofrequency therapy modulated histone acetylation status without change heat shock proteins in healthy women. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2021;74(9):2392–2442. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2021.03.103

10. Suh DH, Ahn HJ, Seo JK, Lee SJ, Shin MK, Song KY. Monopolar radiofrequency treatment for facial laxity: histometric analysis. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020;19(9):2317–2324. doi:10.1111/jocd.13449

11. Lotfi E, M S, Ahramiyanpour N. Radiofrequency-assisted subcision combined with polycaprolactone-based dermal fillers in the management of atrophic facial acne scars: a pilot investigative study. Skin Res Technol. 2024; 2024:1.

12. Huang K, Liang S, Sun Z, et al. Startup mechanism of moxibustion warming and dredging function[J]. Chine Acupun Moxi. 2017;37(9):1023–1026.

13. Boisnic S, Branchet MC. Ex vivo study of the home-use tripollar RF device using an experimental human skin model. J DermatolTreat. 2010;21(5):301–305. doi:10.3109/09546630903277628

14. Kaplan H, Gat A. Clinical and histopathological results following TriPollar radiofrequency skin treatments. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2009;11(2):78–84. doi:10.1080/14764170902846227

15. Boisnic S, Branchet MC, Birnstiel O, Beilin G. Clinical and histopathological study of the TriPollar home-use device for body treatments. Eur J Dermatol. 2010;20(3):367–372. doi:10.1684/ejd.2010.0938

16. Shapiro SD, Eros Y, Abrahami Y, Leviav A. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of the TriPollar technology for treatment of wrinkles. Lasers Surg Med. 2012;44(6):453–458. doi:10.1002/lsm.22044

17. Beilin G. Home-use TriPollar RF device for facial skin tightening: clinical study results. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2011;13(2):69–76. doi:10.3109/14764172.2011.552607

18. Sadick NS, Harth Y. A 12-week clinical and instrumental study evaluating the efficacy of a multisource radiofrequency home-use device for wrinkle reduction and improvement in skin tone, skin elasticity, and dermal collagen content. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016;18(8):422–427. doi:10.1080/14764172.2016.1202419

19. Shemer A, Levy H, Sadick NS, Harth Y, Dorizas AS. Home-based wrinkle reduction using a novel handheld multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency device. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(11):1342–1347.

20. Omi T. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of continuous use of a home-use high-frequency facial treatment appliance[J]. J Cosmet Dermatological Sci Appl. 2018;8(01):25. doi:10.4236/jcdsa.2018.81005

21. Nobile V, Michelotti A, Cestone E. A home-based eyebrows lifting effect using a novel device that emits electrostatic pulses containing RF energy, resulting in high frequency, low level transdermal microcurrent pulsations: double blind, randomized clinical study of efficacy and safety. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016;18(4):234–238. doi:10.3109/14764172.2016.1156704

22. Ablon G. Phototherapy with light emitting diodes: treating a broad range of medical and aesthetic conditions in dermatology. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2018;11(2):21–27.

23. Lan CC, Ho PY, Wu CS, Yang RC, Yu HS. LED 590 nm photomodulation reduces UVA-induced metalloproteinase-1 expression via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme catalase. J Dermatol Sci. 2015;78(2):125–132. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2015.02.018

24. Wang B, Y YH, Liu TY, et al. Photobiomodulation effect of 635nm LED irradiation on kidney Yang deficiency model rats. Chin J Laser Med. 2010;19(03):142–147+202.

25. Guermonprez C, Declercq L, Decaux G, Grimaud JA. Safety and efficacy of a novel home-use device for light-potentiated (LED) skin treatment. J Biophotonics. 2020;13(12):e202000230. doi:10.1002/jbio.202000230

26. Jnc N, Wanitphakdeedecha R, Yan C. Efficacy of home-use light-emitting diode device at 637 and 854-nm for facial rejuvenation: a split-face pilot study. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020;19(9):2288–2294. doi:10.1111/jocd.13613

27. Sadick NS. A study to determine the efficacy of a novel handheld light-emitting diode device in the treatment of photoaged skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008;7(4):263–267. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00404.x

28. Bhat J, Birch J, Whitehurst C, Lanigan SW. A single-blinded randomised controlled study to determine the efficacy of omnilux revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation. Lasers Med Sci. 2005;20(1):6–10. doi:10.1007/s10103-005-0330-5

29. Baez F, Reilly LR. The use of light-emitting diode therapy in the treatment of photoaged skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6(3):189–194. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2007.00329.x

30. Kavanagh S, Newell J, Hennessy M, Sadick N. Use of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device for facial muscle toning: a randomized, controlled trial. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2012;11(4):261–266. doi:10.1111/jocd.12007

31. Cheung MC, Chan AS, Yip J. Microcurrent stimulation at shenmen acupoint facilitates EEG associated with sleepiness and positive mood: a randomized controlled electrophysiological study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:182837. doi:10.1155/2015/182837

32. Armstrong K, Gokal R, Chevalier A, Todorsky W, Lim M. Microcurrent point stimulation applied to lower back acupuncture points for the treatment of nonspecific neck pain. J Altern Complement Med. 2017;23(4):2. doi:10.1089/acm.2016.0313

33. Huiying H, Yanshan L, Meiyin W, et al. Preliminary study on the photo-protective effect of different skin care technology combinations on SKH-1 mice skin. Sys Med. 2018;3(21):19–22.

34. Gold MH, Biron J. Improvement of wrinkles and skin tightening using tripollar® radiofrequency with Dynamic Muscle Activation (DMA™). J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020;19(9):2282–2287. doi:10.1111/jocd.13620

35. Shu X, Wan R, Huo W, et al. Effectiveness of a radiofrequency device for rejuvenation of aged skin at home: a randomized split-face clinical trial. Dermatol Ther. 2022;12(4):871–883. doi:10.1007/s13555-022-00697-y

36. Gold MH, Biron J, Levi L, Sensing W. Safety, efficacy, and usage compliance of home-use device utilizing RF and light energies for treating periorbital wrinkles. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2017;16(1):95–102. doi:10.1111/jocd.12299

37. Fang F, Dingquan Y. Research progress of traditional Chinese medicine anti-aging. Chin Cosmetic Med. 2017;26(01):36–39.

38. Su X, Xiangli L. Regulative effects of auricular acupuncture, moxibustion and Chinese herbs on immunologic function in the D-galactose-induced aging mouse[J]. J Traditional Chin Med. 2008;28(2):129–133. doi:10.1016/S0254-6272(08)60031-X

39. Chunying Y, Bin X, Yinong S. Effects of acupuncture at zusanli point on MDA, GSH-Px and hyp in the skin of aging model mice. Shanghai J Acupuncture Moxibustion. 2007;26(10):39–40.

40. Shao HH. Effect of Acupuncture at Zusanli on Telomerase Activity and Skin Tissue Structure in Aging Mice. Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine,; 2013.

41. Ma C, Sivamani RK. Acupuncture as a treatment modality in dermatology: a systematic review. J Altern Complement Med. 2015;21(9):520–529. doi:10.1089/acm.2014.0274

42. Yoshiyama M, Kuge H, Tsuji R. Effect of acupuncture in the facial region on moisture and oil content and facial check sheet (FCS) scores. J Jpn Soc Acupunct Moxibustion. 2018;68:257–264.

43. Xiaoling W. The effect of acupoint catgut embedding on the skin of facial wrinkles in foot-yangming. Health Care Guidelines. 2020;23:69–70.

44. Rui-hong L, Xin W-P, Wang X. Effect of acupoint filler injection on facial rejuvenation based on meridian theory. Chin Cosmet. 2021;30(11):103–106.

45. Moustafa Y, Kassab AN, El Sharnoubi J, Yehia H. Comparative study in the management of allergic rhinitis in children using LED phototherapy and laser acupuncture. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77(5):658–665. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.01.006

Creative Commons License © 2024 The Author(s). This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.