Design and assessment of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled, prosthetic hand
Received 26 October 2012
Accepted for publication 5 December 2012
Published 28 June 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 97—104
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Massimo Polisiero,1 Paolo Bifulco,1 Annalisa Liccardo,2 Mario Cesarelli,1 Maria Romano,1 Gaetano D Gargiulo,3 Alistair L McEwan,3 Massimo D'Apuzzo2
1Department of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Abstract: The study reported here explored the design and realization of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled hand prosthesis for amputees living in developing countries. The developed prosthesis is composed of a light aluminum structure with opposing fingers connected to a DC motor that imparts only the movement of grasp. Problems associated with surface electromyographic signal acquisition and processing, motor control, and evaluation of grasp force were addressed, with the goal of minimizing cost and ensuring easy assembly. Simple analog front ends amplify and condition the electromyographic signals registered from two antagonist muscles by surface electrodes. Analog signals are sampled at 1 kHz and processed by a microcontroller that drives the motor with a supply voltage proportional to the muscular contraction, performing the opening and closing of the opposing fingers. Reliable measurements of the level of muscle contractions were obtained by specific digital processing: real-time operators implementing the root mean square value, mean absolute value, standard deviation, and mean absolute differential value were compared in terms of efficiency to estimate the EMG envelope, computational load, and time delay. The mean absolute value operator was adopted at a time window of 64 milliseconds. A suitable calibration procedure was proposed to overcome problems associated with the wide variation of electromyograph amplitude and background noise depending on the specific patient's muscles selected. A pulse-width modulated signal drives the DC motor, allowing closing and opening of the prosthesis. The relationship between the motor-driver signal and the actual hand-grasp force developed by the prosthesis was measured using a hand-held grip dynamometer. The resulting force was proportional to current for moderate values of current and then saturated. The motor torque, and, in turn, the force elicited, can be measured by sensing the current absorbed by the motor. Therefore, the grasp force can be opportunely limited or controlled. The cost of the only electronic and mechanical components of the electromyographically controlled hand was about US$50; other costs, such as the cost of labor to assemble the prosthesis and the production of adapters for patients, were not estimated.
Keywords: electromyography amplitude measurements, electromyograph-controlled hand prosthesis, grasp-force measurements, low-cost design
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