Depression and Coping Among COVID-19-Infected Individuals After 10 Days of Mandatory in-Hospital Quarantine, Irbid, Jordan
Received 12 June 2020
Accepted for publication 17 August 2020
Published 6 October 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 823—830
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Igor Elman
Shaher M Samrah, 1 Abdel-Hameed Al-Mistarehi, 2 Abdelwahab J Aleshawi, 3 Aws G Khasawneh, 4 Suleiman M Momany, 1 Baker S Momany, 3 Faris J Abu Za’nouneh, 3 Thekra Keelani, 3 Abrar Alshorman, 3 Basheer Y Khassawneh 1
1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan; 3Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan; 4Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan
Correspondence: Shaher M Samrah
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box: 630001, Irbid 22110, Jordan
Tel +962 2 7201000
Fax +962 2 7201064
Email [email protected]
Background: In-hospital mandatory quarantine of asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19-infected individuals was part of the national control strategy used to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate depression, associated stressors, and various coping methods used among adult quarantined COVID-19-infected individuals.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included all COVID-19-infected individuals who were obligatorily quarantined at King Abdullah University Hospital, Irbid, Jordan from March 15 to April 20, 2020. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire after 10 days of quarantine. In addition, several questions regarding the patients’ sights with the health-care system, and coping methods were added. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and comorbidities were collected from the medical records.
Results: Out of 91 quarantined COVID-19 patients, a total of 66 completed the survey, with a participation rate of 72.5%. The majority were relatively young; the mean ± SD age was 35.8 ± 16.2 years (range 18– 79), 59.1% were females and 47% were asymptomatic. A considerable proportion of patients (44%) reported symptoms of depression, with 21% were at high risk of major depressive disorder. Depression symptoms were significantly more common among females than males [PHQ-9 score ≥ 10: 13 (92.9%) vs 1 (7.1%), respectively; p=0.004]. The majority of patients (71.2%) reported having problems with health-care services. Insufficient involvement in making treatment decisions was the most commonly reported concern (59.1%). Patients who reported problems in maintaining privacy, reaching out to their physicians, or receiving conflicting information from the medical staff, had more symptoms of depression compared with the satisfied ones (p< 0.05). On the other hand, those who were receiving sufficient support from the family, friends, or medical staff during quarantine, were less likely to have depression symptoms (p< 0.05). Furthermore, symptoms of depression were less in patients who stayed in touch with others using phone calls, texting, or social media (p=0.024).
Conclusion: Symptoms of depression were common among both symptomatic and asymptomatic quarantined COVID-19 patients. The support of family, friends, and medical staff was an essential alleviating factor. Facilitating adequate communication may promote the mental well-being of COVID-19-infected patients and help in reducing the risk of depression during the in-hospital quarantine.
Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quarantine, depression, psychological disorder
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