Decapeptide functionalized targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles with doxorubicin exhibit enhanced apoptotic effect in breast and prostate cancer cells
Authors Tambe P, Kumar P, Paknikar KM, Gajbhiye V
Received 20 August 2018
Accepted for publication 25 September 2018
Published 19 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 7669—7680
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Alexander Kharlamov
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster
Prajakta Tambe,1,2,* Pramod Kumar,1,2,* Kishore M Paknikar,1,2 Virendra Gajbhiye1,2
1Nanobioscience Group, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India; 2Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: Considering the increase in cancer cases and number of deaths per year worldwide, development of potential therapeutics is imperative. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) are among the potential nanocarriers having unique properties for drug delivery. Doxorubicin (DOX), being the most commonly used drug, can be efficiently delivered to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-overexpressing cancer cells using functionalized MSNPs.
Aim: We report the development of decapeptide-conjugated MSNPs loaded with DOX for the targeted drug delivery in breast and prostate cancer cells.
Materials and methods: MSNPs were synthesized and subsequently functionalized with an analog of GnRH by using a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol as a linker. These targeted MSNPs were then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. An anticancer drug DOX was loaded and then characterized for drug loading. DOX-loaded nanocarriers were then studied for their cellular uptake using confocal microscopy. The cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded targeted MSNPs and DOX-loaded bare MSNPs was studied by performing MTT assay on MCF-7 (breast cancer) and LNCaP (prostate cancer) cells. Further, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, as well as flow cytometry, was performed to confirm the apoptotic mode of cancer cell death.
Results: MSNPs were conjugated with polyethylene glycol as well as an agonist of GnRH and subsequently loaded with DOX. These targeted and bare MSNPs showed excellent porous structure and loading of DOX. Further, higher uptake of DOX-loaded targeted MSNPs was observed as compared to DOX-loaded bare MSNPs in GnRH-overexpressing breast (MCF-7) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells. The targeted MSNPs also showed significantly higher (P<0.001) cytotoxicity than DOX-loaded bare MSNPs at different time points. After 48 hours of treatment, the IC50 value for DOX-loaded targeted MSNPs was found to be 0.44 and 0.43 µM in MCF-7 and LNCaP cells, respectively. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry analysis further confirmed the pathway of cell death through apoptosis.
Conclusion: This study suggests GnRH analog-conjugated targeted MSNPs can be the suitable and promising approach for targeted drug delivery in all hormone-dependent cancer cells.
Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles, GnRH receptors, receptor-mediated endocytosis, breast and prostate cancer, decapeptide
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