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Cytoprotective effect of glutaraldehyde erythropoietin on HEK293 kidney cells after silver nanoparticle exposure

Authors Sooklert K, Chattong S, Manotham K, Boonwong C, Klaharn I, Jindatip D, Sereemaspun A

Received 3 September 2015

Accepted for publication 9 December 2015

Published 12 February 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 597—605

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S95654

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Venkata Atluri

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster


Video abstract presented by Kanidta Sooklert.

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Kanidta Sooklert,1,2 Supreecha Chattong,3 Krissanapong Manotham,3 Chawikan Boonwong,1 I-yanut Klaharn,1 Depicha Jindatip,4 Amornpun Sereemaspun1,4

1Nanobiomedicine Laboratory, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, 2Inter-Department Program of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Lerdsin General Hospital, 4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract: The toxic effects from exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are broadly present in many consumer products, have long raised concerns. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of nanosilver, which cause toxicity in human cells, but little is known about prevention of this type of injury. This study investigated the in vitro effects of glutaraldehyde erythropoietin (GEPO), a cytoprotective compound derived from erythropoietin, in terms of cell protection against AgNP-induced injury. HEK293 cells were pretreated with or without GEPO before administration of AgNPs. The protective effects of GEPO in this cell line were assessed by the percentage of viable cells, alterations of cell morphology, and the proliferative capability of the cells. In addition, we assessed the role of GEPO in lowering cellular oxidative stress and regulating expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. The results showed rescue effects on the percentage of viable and proliferative cells among GEPO pretreated cells. Pretreatment with GEPO maintained the normal cell shape and ultrastructural morphology. Moreover, GEPO reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species in cells and activated expression of Bcl2, which are the major mechanisms in protection against cellular toxicity induced by AgNPs. In conclusion, our study showed that the cytotoxic effects from exposure to AgNPs can be prevented by GEPO.

Keywords: glutaraldehyde erythropoietin, silver nanoparticles, cytoprotection, nanotoxicity

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