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Cytoprotective and enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of liposomal piroxicam formulation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

Authors Chiong HS, Yong YK, Ahmad Z, Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Yuen KH, Hakim MN, Tang S

Received 15 January 2013

Accepted for publication 7 February 2013

Published 22 March 2013 Volume 2013:8(1) Pages 1245—1255

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S42801

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Hoe Siong Chiong,1 Yoke Keong Yong,1 Zuraini Ahmad,1 Mohd Roslan Sulaiman,1 Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria,1 Kah Hay Yuen,2 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim1,3

1Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Malaysia; 3Sports Academy, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

Background: Liposomal drug delivery systems, a promising lipid-based nanoparticle technology, have been known to play significant roles in improving the safety and efficacy of an encapsulated drug.
Methods: Liposomes, prepared using an optimized proliposome method, were used in the present work to encapsulate piroxicam, a widely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The cytotoxic effects as well as the in vitro efficacy in regulation of inflammatory responses by free-form piroxicam and liposome-encapsulated piroxicam were evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide-sensitive macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7.
Results: Cells treated with liposome-encapsulated piroxicam demonstrated higher cell viabilities than those treated with free-form piroxicam. In addition, the liposomal piroxicam formulation resulted in statistically stronger inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (ie, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and prostaglandin E2) than piroxicam at an equivalent dose. The liposome-encapsulated piroxicam also caused statistically significant production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Conclusion: This study affirms the potential of a liposomal piroxicam formulation in reducing cytotoxicity and enhancing anti-inflammatory responses in vitro.

Keywords:
liposomes, nitric oxide, cytokines, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1β, piroxicam

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