Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia
Received 14 November 2017
Accepted for publication 13 February 2018
Published 19 March 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 419—427
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Ayidh M Alqarni,1,2 Vishal Vennu,1 Sulaiman A Alshammari,3 Saad M Bindawas1
1Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, King Abdullah Hospital, Bisha, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Purpose: Older adults are the fastest growing population group worldwide. Regular physical activity (PA) is reported to reduce the risk of health conditions and improve personal well-being. Few validated instruments can be used to measure the PA levels among older adults in Saudi Arabia. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) is used worldwide for evaluating the PA levels of the elderly in epidemiological studies. However, this scale has not been translated into Arabic. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the PASE into Arabic language and evaluate its reliability and validity among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia.
Patients and methods: This study was a cross-sectional one following Beaton guidelines to translate and perform cultural adaptation, as well as test the reliability and validity of the PASE Arabic version (PASE-A). Elderly (N=74) people from both genders, who lived in a community dwelling in Riyadh city, were selected from several primary health care centers. The study used Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess the internal consistency reliability, while intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) was used for test–retest reliability and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to evaluate the correlation among PASE-A and grip strength, Timed Up and Go test, body mass index, and fat percentage.
Results: Out of 74 older adults, 59 (79.7%) completed the PASE-A questionnaire twice. The internal consistency of the PASE-A components was good (Cronbach’s alpha 0.70–0.75), and the reliability of the components was excellent (ICC2,1 0.90–0.98). A higher PASE-A score was associated with higher grip strength (r=0.28, p=0.05) and with shorter Timed Up and Go test times (r=-0.45, p=0.01).
Conclusion: The PASE-A version was easy, understandable, and relevant for Saudi older adults’ culture. This scale was a reliable and valid tool for evaluating and assessing the PA level among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: physical activity, elderly, psychometric, PASE, Saudi Arabia, reliability, cross-sectional study, psychometric
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