Correlation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in acute central serous chorioretinopathy with visual acuity
Unnikrishnan Nair,1 Sunil Ganekal,2 Manoj Soman,1 KGR Nair1
1Chaithanya Eye Hospital and Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; 2Nayana Super Specialty Eye Hospital and Research Center, Davangere, Karnataka, India
Purpose: To evaluate the structural changes in the acute phase of central serous chorioretinopathy and after its resolution, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, to correlate these tomographic changes with visual acuity (VA).
Method: This was a prospective study of 100 consecutive patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy. It was based on presenting the best-corrected VA, divided into three groups (Group 1, n = 36, VA 6/6; Group 2, n = 49, VA 6/9–6/18; Group 3, n = 15, VA > 6/18). All patients underwent fundus evaluation followed by fluorescein angiography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 40 ± 7.17 years. The mean log MAR VA was 0.176 ± 0.0185. Single pigment epithelial detachment (PED), and multiple discrete and multiple confluent PEDs were seen in 21%, 17%, and 32% of the eyes, respectively. The location of the PED was subfoveal in 35% of the eyes. The presence of subretinal fibrin and a rough undersurface of the neurosensory retina were noted in 61% and 64% of the eyes, respectively. On en-face scanning, a break in the walls of the PED and overlying fibrin were seen in 32.8% and 45% of the eyes, respectively. The mean subretinal fluid height at the fovea was 279.11 ± 148.78 µ. The mean outer nuclear layer thickness during the active stage was 95.10 µ and during the resolved stage, it was 77.69 µ (P = 0.012). The average photoreceptor lengths were 73.1 µ, 84.6 µ, and 94.9 µ in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, in the acute phase; and 69.5 µ, 70.8 µ, and 61.6 µ, respectively, after resolution (P = 0.013, P = 0.010, and P = 0.011).
Conclusion: In the acute phase of the disease, poorer VA showed statistically significant association with greater dimensions of subretinal fluid – particularly, greater subretinal fluid height and thinning of the outer nuclear layer at the fovea. The presence of fibrin, subretinal precipitates, subfoveal location, or type of PED did not have any association with poor VA. In resolved central serous chorioretinopathy, poorer VA was associated with a persistently thinner outer nuclear layer, shorter photoreceptor lengths, and inner and outer segment junction atrophy.
Keywords: SD-OCT, acute CSC, ONL thickness, photoreceptor thickness, visual acuity correlation
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