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Comparative study of proteasome inhibitory, synergistic antibacterial, synergistic anticandidal, and antioxidant activities of gold nanoparticles biosynthesized using fruit waste materials

Authors Patra JK, Baek K

Received 21 March 2016

Accepted for publication 29 June 2016

Published 14 September 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 4691—4705

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S108920

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Jayanta Kumar Patra,1 Kwang-Hyun Baek2

1Research Institute of Biotechnology and Medical Converged Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Ilsandong-gu, Gyeonggi-do, 2Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, South Korea

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generated using the aqueous extracts of outer oriental melon peel (OMP) and peach. The synthesized OMP-AuNPs and peach extract (PE)-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra were obtained at 545 nm and 540 nm for OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs, respectively. The estimated absolute crystallite size of the synthesized AuNPs was calculated to be 78.11 nm for OMP-AuNPs and 39.90 nm for PE-AuNPs based on the Scherer equation of the X-ray powder diffraction peaks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds present in OMP and peach extracts in the synthesis and stabilization of synthesized AuNPs. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs showed a strong antibacterial synergistic activity when combined with kanamycin (9.38–20.45 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (9.52–25.23 mm inhibition zones), and they also exerted a strong synergistic anticandidal activity (10.09–15.47 mm inhibition zones) when combined with amphotericin B against five pathogenic Candida species. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs exhibited a strong antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, and a reducing power, along with a strong proteasome inhibitory potential that could be useful in cancer drug delivery and cancer treatments. The PE-AuNPs showed comparatively higher activity than OMP-AuNPs, which could be attributed to the presence of rich bioactive compounds in the PE that acted as reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of PE-AuNPs. Overall, the results of the current investigation highlighted a novel green technology for the synthesis of AuNPs using food waste materials and their potential applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

Keywords: antibacterial, anticandidal, antioxidant, Cucumis melo, gold nanoparticles, proteasome inhibitor, Prunus persica

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