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Colloidal gold-loaded, biodegradable, polymer-based stavudine nanoparticle uptake by macrophages: an in vitro study

Authors Basu S, Mukherjee B, Chowdhury SR, Paul P, Choudhury R, Kumar A, Mondal L, Hossain CM, Maji R

Received 12 September 2012

Accepted for publication 22 October 2012

Published 13 December 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 6049—6061

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S38013

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Video abstract presented by Dr Mukherjee

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Sumit Basu,1,2 Biswajit Mukherjee,1 Samrat Roy Chowdhury,1 Paramita Paul,1 Rupak Choudhury,3 Ajeet Kumar,1 Laboni Mondal,1 Chowdhury Mobaswar Hossain,1 Ruma Maji1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India; 2Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Ballygunge Science College, Kolkata, India

Objective: We describe the development, evaluation, and comparison of colloidal gold-loaded, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based nanoparticles containing anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug stavudine and uptake of these nanoparticles by macrophages in vitro.
Methods: We used the following methods in this study: drug-excipient interaction by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, morphology of nanoparticles by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, particle size by a particle size analyzer, and zeta potential and polydispersity index by a zetasizer. Drug loading and in vitro release were evaluated for formulations. The best formulation was incorporated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Macrophage uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles was studied in vitro.
Results: Variations in process parameters, such as speed of homogenization and amount of excipients, affected drug loading and the polydispersity index. We found that the drug was released for a prolonged period (over 63 days) from the nanoparticles, and observed cellular uptake of stavudine nanoparticles by macrophages.
Conclusion: Experimental nanoparticles represent an interesting carrier system for the transport of stavudine to macrophages, providing reduced required drug dose and improved drug delivery to macrophages over an extended period. The presence of colloidal gold in the particles decreased the drug content and resulted in comparatively faster drug release.

Keywords: stavudine, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid), nanoparticles, colloidal gold, uptake by macrophages

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