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Co-Infection Pneumonia with Mycobacterium abscessus and Pneumocystis jiroveci in a Patient without HIV Infection Diagnosed by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors Xie D, Xian Y, You J, Xu W, Fan M, Bi X, Zhang K

Received 1 December 2020

Accepted for publication 13 February 2021

Published 4 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 879—888

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S292768

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony


Dan Xie,* Ying Xian,* Jingya You, Wen Xu, Min Fan, Xiaogang Bi, Kouxing Zhang

Department of General Intensive Care Unit, Lingnan Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Kouxing Zhang
Department of General Intensive Care Unit, Lingnan Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, 2693 Kaichuang Avenue, Guangzhou, 510530, People’s Republic of China
Email [email protected]

Introduction: Co-infection pneumonia with Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) and Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is rarely reported in previously healthy patients without HIV infection. The diagnosis of pneumonia of M. abscessus and P. jirovecii remains challenging due to its nonspecific clinical presentation and the inadequate performance of conventional diagnostic methods.
Case Report: We report the case of a 44-year-old previously healthy male transferred to our hospital in February 2020 with a 4-month history of productive cough and one month of intermittent fever. At local hospital, the metagenomic next-generation sequencing(mNGS) detected P. jirovecii sequences in blood; with the antifungal therapy (Caspofungin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX] and methylprednisolone [MP]), the patient still had hypoxemia, cough and fever. Then he was transferred to our hospital, the mNGS of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) detected the sequences of M. abscessus and P. jirovecii. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in the peripheral blood cells was presented and HIV serology was negative. Caspofungin, TMP-SMX, clindamycin and MP were used to treat P. jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). Moxifloxacin, imipenem cilastatin and linezolid were used to treat M. abscessus infection. Clinical progress was satisfactory following antifungal combined with anti-M. abscessus therapy.
Conclusion: Co-infection pneumonia with M. abscessus and P. jirovecii as reported here is exceptionally rare. mNGS is a powerful tool for pathogen detection. M. abscessus infection could be a risk factor for P. jirovecii infection. This case report supports the value of mNGS in diagnosing of M. abscessus and P. jirovecii, and highlights the inadequacies of conventional diagnostic methods.

Keywords: Pneumocystis jiroveci, Mycobacterium abscessus, mNGS, co-infection, HIV negative

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