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Clinical Utility of CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients at Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: A Review of Emerging Evidence

Authors Gower MN, Ratner LR, Williams AK, Rossi JS, Stouffer GA, Lee CR

Received 25 April 2020

Accepted for publication 29 June 2020

Published 27 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 239—252

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S231475

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin H Bluth


Megan N Gower,1 Lindsay R Ratner,1 Alexis K Williams,1 Joseph S Rossi,2 George A Stouffer,2,3 Craig R Lee1,3

1Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Division of Cardiology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC McAllister Heart Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

Correspondence: Craig R Lee Tel +1 919-843-7673
Email craig_lee@unc.edu

Abstract: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the standard of care is dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor) and aspirin. Current clinical practice guidelines now recommend more potent P2Y12 inhibitors (prasugrel or ticagrelor) over clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, clopidogrel remains the most commonly prescribed P2Y12 inhibitor in the setting of PCI and is also the preferred agent in the treatment and secondary prevention of stroke. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that requires bioactivation by the CYP2C19 enzyme. It has been shown that clopidogrel use in patients who are CYP2C19 no function allele carriers are associated with impaired antiplatelet inhibition and a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Compared to clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor clinical response is not impacted by CYP2C19 genotype. Even with a demonstrated increased risk of adverse outcomes in CYP2C19 no function allele carriers treated with clopidogrel, routine implementation of CYP2C19 genotyping to guide antiplatelet therapy selection has remained controversial and has not been widely adopted. Recent results from multiple prospective randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials investigating the use of CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy following PCI have advanced the evidence base demonstrating the clinical utility of this strategy. Multiple recent studies have examined the effects of CYP2C19 genotype on clopidogrel outcomes in the setting of stroke and neurointerventional procedures. In this review, we discern the clinical utility of using CYP2C19 genotype testing to guide antiplatelet therapy prescribing by evaluating the impact of CYP2C19 genotype-guided selection of antiplatelet therapy on clinical outcomes, summarizing emerging data from cardiovascular and neurology clinical studies, and discussing implications for clinical practice guidelines, remaining knowledge gaps and future research directions.

Keywords: percutaneous coronary intervention, clopidogrel, CYP2C19, precision medicine, pharmacogenetics, stroke

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