Clinical use of recombinant human activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in the prevention and treatment of bleeding episodes in patients with Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia
Authors Man-Chiu Poon
Published 15 November 2007 Volume 2007:3(5) Pages 655—664
Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics and Oncology and Southern Alberta Bleeding Disorders Clinic, University of Calgary and Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Abstract: Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT) is a congenital qualitative platelet disorders due to the deficiency or defect of platelet membrane GPIIb/IIIa (integrin αIIbβ3). The standard treatment for bleeding is platelet transfusion but repeated transfusion may result in the development of anti-platelet antibodies (to HLA and/or GPIIbIIIa) rendering future platelet transfusion ineffective. Alternative effective agent(s) are needed. There are increasing reports documenting efficacy of high dose rFVIIa in GT patients with adverse events uncommon. The efficacy is supported by evidence that high concentration FVIIa binds to activated platelet surface and improves thrombin generation to enhance deposition (adhesion) and aggregation of platelets lacking GPIIb/IIIa. While there are increasing clinical experiences, evidence-based clinical data are not available. There is a need for more clinical studies, particularly clinical trials, to further assess the efficacy, safety (particularly thrombotic events) and optimal regimen of rFVIIa in GT patients, either singly or in combination with other hemostatic agents such as platelet transfusion. In the absence of this data, for treatment of severe bleeding in GT patients with platelet antibodies and platelet refractoriness, rFVIIa at dose 90 μg/kg every 2 h for 3 or more doses could be considered. This more “optimal regimen” derived from a recent International Survey needs confirmation with larger studies. What the optimal regimen for surgical coverage is remains unresolved.
Keywords: Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia, recombinant human activated factor VII (rFVIIa), bleeding, surgery, platelet transfusion, GPIIb/IIIa