Cigarette smoke-induced RANKL expression enhances MMP-9 production by alveolar macrophages
Authors Zhou L, Le Y, Tian J, Yang X, Jin R, Gai X, Sun Y
Received 7 October 2018
Accepted for publication 29 November 2018
Published 20 December 2018 Volume 2019:14 Pages 81—91
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Chunxue Bai
Lu Zhou,1 Yanqing Le,1 Jieyu Tian,2 Xia Yang,2 Rong Jin,3 Xiaoyan Gai,1 Yongchang Sun1
1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 3Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
Background and purpose: Cigarette smoke (CS) induces alveolar destruction through overproduction of proteinases including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) functions in immune regulation and cytokine secretion; whether it is involved in CS-induced MMP-9 expression is unknown. The purpose of our study was to investigate the expression and functional role of RANKL pathway in MMP-9 production pertaining to the pathogenesis of COPD.
Materials and methods: We first localized RANKL and its receptor RANK in the lungs of mice exposed to long-term CS exposure. Next, we studied RANKL and RANK expression under CS extract (CSE) stimulation in vitro. Lastly, we studied the in vitro biological function of RANKL in CS-induced production of MMP-9.
Results: Both RANKL and RANK were highly expressed in AMs in CS-exposed mice, but not in the control mice. In vitro, CSE increased the expressions of RANKL and RANK in macrophages. AMs responded to CSE and RANKL stimulation by overexpressing MMP-9, and CSE-induced MMP-9 expression was partly blocked by using monoclonal anti-RANKL antibody.
Conclusion: RANKL/RANK pathway mediates CS-induced MMP-9 expression in AMs, suggesting a novel mechanism for CS-associated emphysema.
Keywords: COPD, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, RANK, alveolar macrophages, MMP-9
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