Chronic Kidney Disease And Associated Risk Factors Among Cardiovascular Patients
Received 14 July 2019
Accepted for publication 7 September 2019
Published 18 September 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 205—211
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Melinda Thomas
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal
Getahun Chala,1 Tariku Sisay,2 Yonas Teshome3
1Department of Medical Physiology, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Mizan Tepi University, Mizan, Ethiopia; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Getahun Chala
Department of Medical Physiology, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
Tel +251 25 9 1044 2278
Background: Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are known in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cause extra morbidity and mortality. There were few related studies in Africa, and no such studies exist in Ethiopia.
Objective: To determine the magnitude of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors among cardiovascular (CV) patients.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected 163 CV patients attending Tikur-Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Ethiopia. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined using the Simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Body weight, height, and blood pressure were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Serum urea and creatinine were analyzed using an automatic analyzer (MINDRAY, BE-2000), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was calculated.
Results: In this study, CKD, defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 was found in 39 (23.9%) participants using the MDRD equation. Normal serum creatinine (SCr) was observed in 114 (69.9%) participants and proteinuria was found in 41 (25.2%) participants. CKD was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (COR: −0.240, 95% CI: −0.439 to −0.041, p = 0.018), SCr (COR: −0.679; 95% CI: −0.778 to −0.580; p = 0.001) and BUN (COR: −0.422; 95% CI: −0.550 to −0.295; p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only high SCr (AOR = 47.57; 95% CI: 13.72–164.89; p = 0.001) was independently associated with CKD.
Conclusion: These findings indicated that the CKD was significantly associated with SBP and increased BUN, while independently associated with increased SCr. Thus, early detection and recognition of CKD in-patient with CVD helps to avoid extra morbidity and mortality. We recommend using the MDRD formula in health facilities for diagnosing of CKD to reduce duplication of laboratory tests (SCr and BUN), as it is the easiest practice and saves patients and the public sector costs.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine
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